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New York City Toll Script & Tokens - TBTA & PANYNJ
 triborough bridge tunnel authority tbta panynj token tokens scrip port new york city new jersey verrazano verrazzano goethals outerbridge bayonne lincoln Holland george washington brooklyn battery throgs neck
bronx whitestone queens midtown henry hudson crossbay cross bay marine parkway gil hodges veterans memorial commutation combination ticket toll tariff fare manhattan staten island roads bridges tariff fares schedules ephemera exonumia collecting collection collector



 www.nyctollscrip.info

TOLL SCRIP & TOKENS

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FROM THE BRIDGES & TUNNELS IN THE NEW YORK METROPOLITAN AREA


BY
PHILIP M. GOLDSTEIN
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website updated:
Sunday - 20 May 2020 - 15:00

website created
27 September 2019

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Table of Contents
(date under each paragraph link reflects last revision date - red is most recent)

I
N
T
R
O

The Purpose of Tolls The Purpose of Toll Scrip and Tokens
4/6/2020 11/27/2019
.
P
R
I
V
A
T
E
&

C
I
T
Y
Private Companies
Brooklyn & Gowanus Toll Bridge Con
(and others...)



City of New York - Department of Bridges
New York & Brooklyn Bridge
Manhattan Bridge
Williamsburg Bridge
Blackwell's Island / Queensboro Bridge
5/11/2020 5/11/2020
P
R
E
·
T
B
T
A
A
G
E
N
C
I
E
S
Predecessor Agencies
Henry Hudson Parkway Authority
Marine Parkway Authority
New York City Parkway Authority
Triborough Bridge Authority
New York City Tunnel Authority

Scrip / Tickets
Henry Hudson Parkway Bridge
Marine Parkway Bridge
Crossbay Parkway Bridge
Triborough Bridge
Bronx White Stone Bridge
Queens-Midtown Tunnel
4/6/2020 4/6/2020
T
B
T
A
M
T
A
Triborough Bridge &
Tunnel Authority


MTA Bridges & Tunnels
Scrip / Tickets
"First" Issue
"Second" Issue
"Third" Issue - Univac / IBM
"Fourth" Issue
"Fifth" Issue
"Sixth" Issue
Tokens
Rolls & Discounting
The "Wheel"
The "Big M"
The "List"
The "Residents"


Receipts Internal Documents & Reference Materials
Historical Toll Fares Current Toll Fares
3/3/2020 5/20/2020 5/10/2020 12/18/2019
P
N
Y
A
P
A
N
Y
N
J
New York State Bridge and Tunnel Commission / New Jersey Interstate Bridge & Tunnel Commission

Holland Tunnel
Port of New York Authority
Scrip / Tickets


Holland Tunnel
Lincoln Tunnel (Midtown Hudson Tunnel)
Goethals Bridge
Outerbridge Crossing
Bayonne Bridge
George Washington Bridge

TS Series 1935, 1951, 1960, 1969, 1970
Series F & H Commutation Issues
Series P - Employee Passes
Port Authority of New York and
New Jersey - Scrip / Tickets


Holland Tunnel
Lincoln Tunnel
Goethals Bridge
Outerbridge Crossing
Bayonne Bridge
George Washington Bridge


"First" Issue
"Second" Issue
"Third" Issue
"Fourth" Issue & Universal Commuter
"Fifth" Issue

Receipts Historical Toll Fares
& Information
Current Toll Fares,
Vehicle Class Structure
5/10/2020 4/6/2020 5/10/2020 5/10/2020 2/10/2020
E
Z
·
P
A
S
S
M
I
S
C
E-ZPass:
or "the end of collecting toll scrip & tokens as we know it"
Special Thanks Website Dedicated To Guestbook
12/27/2019 3/9/2020
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All images and content of this website, unless otherwise marked are copyrighted either by the author or their respective owners - © 2020 - Philip M. Goldstein
 The content of this website is not to be reused or reproduced in part or in whole, either in printed or electronic form without the express consent of author.
 Please contact me at: bedt14@aol.com - (936) 396-6103.
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 It shall be known; that neither this website, the author or any contributors (unless otherwise noted), 
have any affiliation with
any governmental agency or office mentioned herein, including but not limited to:

the Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority
the Metropolitan Transportation Authority of New York
the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
the City of New York
the State of New York
or the State of New Jersey

and no such affiliation or representation is suggested or should be implied.




I am willing to pay significantly more than face value to acquire needed examples and issues of scrip, 
including complete, partial books or empty book covers; as well as rolls and packs of tokens to my collection.

How much I will pay depends on several factors:
* whether I have the issue or not (and even if I have issues, I may need extras for trade);
* how many of each example you have;
* the overall condition they are in, and;
* whether they are loose, still attached in either a partial or full book, or if you have book cover only;
* condition of the roll or pack of tokens: intact, partial, and the condition of the wrapper.


Please contact me at  bedt14@aol.com  or by telephone at  (936) 396-6103.




Introduction

   As with most obscure ephemera & exonumia issues, in-depth details regarding the toll scrip and token issues of the New York Metropolitan area were severely lacking.

   While collectors including myself for years have known of and acquired these token & scrip issues; short of club or convention presentations, not much was publicity known nor has documentation has been forthcoming to recording their history to posterity. To this collectors best knowledge and research, this is the first online website regarding these issues, and it was borne out of research.
   

   And while I do collect them, this website strictly covers the bridges and tunnels and will not cover token and script issues for the turnpikes, parkways and thruways. Not yet, anyway.


   For those token issues that are known, I use the widely recognized and respectable Atwood Coffee Catalog for United States & Canadian Transportation Tokens, Seventh Edition (2016), Volume One.
   
   However; the impetus for this website is, as I compiled this information and composed this website, I have encountered token varieties that are not listed. So, I took the liberty to expand upon the Atwood Coffee numbering system with a subletter.

   In regards to "modern" era New York Metropolitan Area toll fiscal issues, there are two separate and distinct agencies that issued fiscal items for toll use; t
he Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority or "TBTA", which has become the Metropolitan Transportation Authority - Bridges & Tunnels and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey "PANYNJ", which was formerly known as Port of New York Authority. Each of these agencies is covered in their own respective sections on this page.

   Turn of the century era issues pertaining to the East River Bridges from 1883-1911 are in their own section at the bottom of the website.


   In regards to scrip, here is where this website should set the bar for research and reference: while the token issues have been researched and documented throughout the decades, courtesy of the Atwood Coffee catalog and the American Vecturist Association (vecturist: a collector of transportation tokens); toll scrip on the other hand has remained relatively unknown.

   To my knowledge, there are no catalogs, guides or other reference materials. Scrip is sort of like the introverted child, playing by itself in a corner of a room somewhere while its popular sibling, the token; is surrounded by lots of friends and attention. Much as in my observation paper money collectors have a smaller population than that of coin collectors.

   In any event, I hope this website corrects this regarding these issues.

   These scrip issues have been seen offered for sale in the fields and categories of:
  • exonumia (numismatic items such as tokens, medals, or scrip, other than coins and paper money), 
  • ephemera (things that exist or are used or enjoyed for only a short time. Items of collectible memorabilia, typically written or printed ones, that were originally expected to have only short-term usefulness or popularity) 
  as well as:
  • obsolete currency,
  • transportation memorabilia, and 
  • automobile memorabilia.
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The Purpose of a Toll

   The purpose in paying a toll may be obvious to many of us, but some would be surprised to learn many people have never paid a toll in their travels. And as a result, they simply do not know what a toll is or how long it tolls have existed.

   From Wikipedia:

   "Toll roads have existed for at least the last 2,700 years, as tolls had to be paid by travelers using the
Susa–Babylon highway under the regime of Ashurbanipal, who reigned in the 7th century BC. Aristotle and Pliny refer to tolls in Arabia and other parts of Asia. In India, before the 4th century BC, the Arthashastra notes the use of tolls. Germanic tribes charged tolls to travelers across mountain passes."


   In short, tolls are nothing new. When a new crossing or road was completed, it was customary to be charged a fare to cross that bridge or to travel that road. In most cases the collected tolls were used to recuperate the cost of materials and labor in the construction of that crossing, as well the cost in acquiring the land / property on which it was built. In some cases, primarily that of the antiquated era; it was to guarantee safe passage on a road, with the tolls used to hire escorts to protect the traveler from bandits and thieves.

   For the sake of context and website, we will be discussing tolls collected for maintenance.

   After the total cost of the bridge was recuperated; the continued collection of tolls made it possible to maintain the bridge, upgrade it for heavier traffic, or when the life expectancy of the span was reached; to give the owner, whether they be a private entity (as a lot of bridges were privately owned in the early days) or a government agency the funding to build a new structure in its place.

    In almost all cases, the toll was collected on the spot by the toll collector, who lived by the crossing. Hence the building was called "toll house", where today we mostly associate it with a chocolate chip cookie. In most cases the toll collector was the person who owned the crossing and / or the land it was built upon and resided in the nearest structure. In some cases of success, a person was hired to collect the toll for the owner.

   Some of the toll houses were spartan affairs, no more than a single room cottage. Others were constructed with a covered breezeway where a horse & cart could pull under, out of the weather and where the rider would dismount, go into the toll house to pay the toll and perhaps pass along news or trade goods with the owner or toll collector. Many of these toll houses can be seen in vintage postcards.

   As urban areas developed, such as City of New York, the City of Brooklyn, etc; new crossings were constructed as the cities expanded, to offer convenience in transportation. There were many tributaries that wound their way through the previously undeveloped lands and to build crossings cost money, and so tolls were collected. As each crossing would almost certainly be owned by a different owner, there could be a lot of disparity in the toll being charged by the owner. The toll might be charged by the number of riders, number of horses, the cargo carried or any other arbitrary item. Some might be two cents, others one cent, some a nickel.

    And in some cases, the inevitable dark side of human nature would rear its ugly head and those people not on friendly terms with the bridge owner would find themselves needing to cross. All too often they found themselves being gouged into paying a higher fare. The next crossing may not be for a few miles up or downstream and horses and oxen do have limitations.

   By this time in the early 1800's, dozens of small privately owned bridges located within the City of New York and the surrounding cities of Brooklyn, Queens, Richmond and the Bronx (themselves independent cities until the merger of 1898). These small bridges that collected tolls included (but certainly not limited to) Macomb's Dam Bridge in the Bronx, Penny Bridge in Queens, Gowanus Creek & Bushwick Creek Toll Bridges in Brooklyn, and many others throughout the city.

   Eventually, with the organization of city governments and usually after a few complaints were received; a department of bridges was formed and a commissioner appointed.
Naturally not everyone would be pleased but it worked and disagreements kept to a minimum.

   For New York City, this occurred in 1898, when the Department of Bridges replaced the Board of Bridge Commissioners, and the Commissioner of Bridges was appointed by the Mayor. Uniform fare schedules were codified. But in most cases, and at this point in the industrial revolution, minor bridge crossings over very small tributaries within the City were now free and included in the city block grid.

   Yet another way the situation remedied itself was once the owner of a crossing retired or sold out, the City would step in and purchase the land and / or crossing or even obtain it through eminent domain to improve the waterway and the issue would be eliminated altogether with the 
new crossing now being a public thoroughfare.

   This is not to say that city governments do not use toll collection as a financial crutch, as we have all to often seen where the tolls are collected to recover the debt incurred with construction of the highway or bridge; but once the debts are in fact recovered, the toll remains in place!


    Prior to the introduction of the Eisenhower Interstate Highway System and the large federal grants and subsidies issued to the individual states to build the portions transversing through their borders, many states constructed their first limited-access highways by floating financial bonds backed by toll revenues. Beginning in 1940 with the Pennsylvania Turnpike, and followed over time by similar roads constructed in New Jersey (the New Jersey Turnpike in 1952 and Garden State Parkway in 1954), as well as the New York State Thruway opening in 1954, as well as many others.

   With said establishment of the Interstate Highway System in the late 1950s, toll road construction in the United States slowed down considerably, as the federal government now provided the majority of funding to construct new freeways, and where regulations stipulated that such Interstate Highways be free from tolls.
But as we see, this does not apply to those roads and crossings within the states themselves.


   On the upside and at the least, the tolls collected do charge the actual user of that highway or crossing, as opposed to the debt being spread amongst property taxes and potentially to residents who use the crossings minimally or in some cases not at all. This method is especially applicable to the driver who uses the crossing once or maybe in their travels, and whereas they would have free passage, the residents of the government who maintain that crossing bear the burden of upkeep.

   And to those who utilized the crossings regularly; whether commuting to and from their employment or their occupation being in the hauling of goods; now found themselves having to stop frequently to pay the toll. And usually pay full price.




The Purpose of Toll Scrip and Tokens


   Scrip: "any substitute for legal tender. It is often a form of credit."

   It is pertinent to understand that toll scrip was sold at a discount below the singular one way or round trip fare, and to be purchased in advance. If a toll was 50 cents one way, round trip was obviously 1 dollar. But for someone making the trip 5 days a work week / 20 days a work month, this can get expensive. Depending on the amount of scrip purchased and how long it was valid for, determined the amount of discount the purchaser received.

   So the agencies offered toll scrip at a discount; in that a book of say, thirty 50 cent tickets may have been sold for 35 cents of face value, costing the commuter only $10.50 instead of the regular toll rate of $15.00.

  And, depending on the quantity of scrip purchased and its duration of validity, determined initial cost: 30 scrip for 30 days, 25 scrip for two months, 10 scrip for one year, et al. Usually the "commutation" books of 30 days offered the greatest discount but the shortest time of validity. And to understand the amounts, is why I spent a great deal of time on compiling the historical lists of toll amounts both for the TBTA and the PNYA / PANYNJ. 

   Another factor that must be recognized is the stipulation that the toll collector must detach the scrip from the book each time, not the driver. I do not know for certain how inviolable this rule was, but most scrip book covers mention this and even some of the scrip itself has "DO NOT DETACH" printed on it.


   It also has to be kept in mind that the issuance of the tokens and / or scrip were not to permit or control admittance to the bridges or tunnels; as the subway tokens were used to gain admittance to the subway.

   Tokens and scrip were used to encourage
regular commuters and toll users to prepay their toll and thereby increase their speed in paying the toll at their moment of passage and thereby
reducing congestion and dwell time at the manned toll booths. This reduced dwell time would further be enhanced in later years with the addition of exact change lanes.

   To further encourage the use of the tokens and scrip and in consideration of your allowing the agency to hold your money in advance; token rolls as well as books of scrip, were offered at a discount
to include the toll payment due at that moment of passage.

   In other words and for example; if your rolled up to the toll booth in your car and the cash toll was .50; you could hand the toll clerk a $5 bill, and say "a roll". You would get in return: a roll of 9 tokens, a dollar bill for change, maybe a smile and away you drove.


   And so, in consideration of purchasing that roll of tokens or scrip in advance, and letting that agency hold your money for an indeterminate period of time; your toll fare was discounted 10% to 45 cents. And that passage at the moment of purchase would be discounted as well.

    As result of this research, it is now known the TBTA tokens (the only token issues known) varied in their rate of discount, whereas both the TBTA and PNYA and PANYNJ "good until used" scrip were usually fixed at 10% and commutation scrip was offered at 20% due to expiration dates.

   And for what it is worth, toll scrip is not to be confused with a toll receipt, which was provided to the driver that proof the toll was paid. Toll scrip was used to pay, and toll receipts provided proof you paid, whether you needed the proof for your employer or as an employer to deduct it from your taxes or business expenses.
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   If you should have any questions, suggestions, additions, contributions or corrections, I more than welcome hearing from you.

   I am especially interested in images of issues not already mentioned here! Needless to say, I am always interested in procuring issues I do not have, so please do not hesitate to contact me either by email at
bedt14@aol.com or by telephone at (936) 396-6103.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Private & Early City Toll Bridges, Plank Roads & Turnpikes




   As the independent City of Brooklyn developed (as well as Queens, Richmond a/k/a Staten Island, and the Bronx); private company would construct a bridge over a stream or creek. They would also cover a heavily traveled path with wooden planks, thereby making a "plank road" or "turnpike" to facilitate easier transportation and the carriage of heavier loads. This was especially welcome during spring thaw, when melting snow and runoff would turn every small depression in the terrain into a quagmire.

   In consideration of the construction and maintenance of these bridges and plank roads, a toll was charged. As can be envisioned, there were myriads of private entities that constructed bridges and thoroughfares crossing their tracts of land for public use.

   While most of the names of these private entities have been lost to history, some can be found mentioned here and there in historical documents in City Museums, and Public Libraries; but the easiest and most expedient source for research has become Google Books. This is where the research for the following company and receipt was assembled.

   I have been fortunate enough in my endeavors of collecting toll scrip to obtain the following piece of history; a receipt for the travel of one team of horse with a wagon over the Brooklyn & Gowanus Toll Bridge issues in 1858. This bridge was located in the immediate vicinity of, and just to the north of the present day Hamilton Avenue drawbridge in the Red Hook / Gowanus neighborhoods of Brooklyn.

   Unfortunately, the tariff for crossing the bridge is not noted, so we cannot tell how much was charged for passage over the span, but it could not have been more than a few cents.


Brooklyn & Gowanus Toll Bridge Company - May 1, 1858
(near present day Hamilton Avenue Bridge, Brooklyn NY)
authors collection


   My research has revealed the Brooklyn & Gowanus Toll Bridge Company was incorporated on April 29, 1833. When the City of Brooklyn set about improving the street grid in that area, circa the 1870's; they announce the construction of a new bridge to be built for Hamilton Avenue, with no toll charged.

   This obviously did not sit well with the principals of the Brooklyn & Gowanus Toll Bridge, and a lawsuit with at least one appeal was subsequently filed, with the matter dragging on to at least 1881. Ultimately, the City of Brooklyn bought out the company and constructed the first of the Hamilton Avenue drawbridges over the Gowanus Canal; which to my understanding was replaced with a span in 1905, and that span being replaced with the present pair of spans (one for each direction of traffic of Hamilton Avenue), which were constructed in 1942 and to which have subsequently been rebuilt in 2008 through 2009.

   It is with almost certainty, that other companies issued receipts for collected tolls as well. Following some quick research, a few of the names revealed were:

Brooklyn, Jamaica & Flatbush Turnpike Company (March 17, 1809)
Coney Island Bridge & Road Company (March 22, 1823)
Maspeth Avenue & Toll Bridge Company, (April 8, 1836)
Coney Island Plank Road (October 12, 1849)



City of New York - Department of Bridges

   As I am sure a lot of the casual readers may not be aware (especially those not from the New York City area); that the East River Bridges collected tolls as well, when they were first opened. These crossings include:

  • Brooklyn Bridge - 1883
  • Manhattan Bridge - 1909
  • Williamsburg Bridge - 1903
    and the:
  • Queensboro Bridge - 1909
    (formerly named Blackwell's Island Bridge);

   These bridges have become to be known by the NYC driver as "free" bridges in the present day conversation (when held in discussion with the tolled crossings). But in fact, tolls were collected on these spans when they first opened individually (1883 through 1909 respectively) and until 1911, when it was realized the City of New York was not legally empowered to collect tolls, and thereby abolished.

   This is just another little tidbit of history that has been lost to time. That is, until now.

Brooklyn Bridge

   In conjunction with the Manhattan Bridge issue in the next chapter, I felt it was now necessary to include the commonly seen Brooklyn Bridge Promenade ticket issue on this website. While it is often listed as a railroad or subway ticket, IT IS NOT, and I present the proof to reinforce this conclusion.

   As a result of this erroneous belief of being a railroad or subway issue, I believe it is one of the most misunderstood and misattributed ticket issues circulating in the category of historical ephemera for New York City, and I sincerely hope this website can correct this.

   First and foremost, when comparing New York & Brooklyn Bridge Railroad tickets to the other issues, the very conspicuously marked "Promenade" and the "One Horse Vehicle" issues clearly lack the word "railroad":

.   .
.
.   .
New York & Brooklyn Bridge
"Promenade"


Foot traffic / Pedestrian Ticket

(NOT railroad)

American Bank Note Company
2" x 1"
authors collection
New York & Brooklyn Bridge
(Carriageway)


One Horse Vehicle (5 cents)
- SPECIMEN
(NOT railroad)

American Bank Note Company
2 ½" x 1 ½"
collection of George S. Cuhaj
New York & Brooklyn Bridge Railroad

Cable Car Ticket
(shown for comparison - NOT a toll ticket)

Hamilton Bank Note Engraving & Printing Co.
2" x 1"


 

   If you were to perform a Google search of "Brooklyn Bridge Promenade" as I did; you will either see reference to and images of the wooden center walkway (over the railway tracks) on the Brooklyn Bridge, dating back to its opening in 1883; or you find reference to the Brooklyn Height Promenade over the Brooklyn Queens Expressway.

   As the later Brooklyn Heights Promenade was not opened until 1950 / 1951 and does cross the Brooklyn Bridge, we shall not concern ourselves with it nor infer any relation of it to the ticket issue.


   Furthermore, C. C. Martin is listed as chief engineer and superintendent on the Promenade ticket. His name appears on all three issues: the Promenade, the One Horse Vehicle as well as the New York & Brooklyn Bridge Railroad issue. Research reveals that Charles Cyril "C. C." Martin was assistant engineer to Washington Roebling, which we all know continued building the Brooklyn Bridge after taking over upon his father's death, John August Roebling.

   Prior to this, C. C. Martin was the designing engineer of Prospect Park in Brooklyn. So with this information coming to light, we know see that C. C. Martin was not a "railroad" man, but a "city" man; with the New York & Brooklyn Bridge under his authority.

   Additionally during my research, I encountered several issues of "The City Record" which was the official journal of the City of New York throughout the 1880's. In those pages, they clearly define income from three separate sources of receipts on the New York & Brooklyn Bridge:
  • From the promenade
  • From the carriageways
  • From the railroad
   Another excerpt I will include here to further bolster my conclusions, is from the America Railway Journal, annual issue from April 1885 through March 1886. In it, it clearly defines the suggestion of eliminating the toll for foot passenger: "... Five promenade tickets for one cent..."

   So if you need further proof that the Promenade Tickets were toll related and NOT railroad related, I cannot help you any further at this point.

.
   According to the DEPARTMENT OF BRIDGES of the CITY OF NEW YORK -
A STATEMENT OF FACTS as PUBLISHED BY THE CITY CLUB OF NEW YORK, OCTOBER 1903;


   "The city's revenue from the Brooklyn Bridge is derived from four general sources:

(1) Payments by railroad companies for the right to operate cars over the
        bridge, and rental for tracks, stations, etc;


(2) tolls charged for vehicles;

(3) payments from railroad, telephone, telegraph, pneumatic tube and cable             companies for the right to lay and operate cables and wires on the
         structure;


(4) rentals from lessees of the vaults, warehouses and other spaces under the
          approaches.


   The city's revenue from the Brooklyn Bridge is not as much as formerly. One cause was the abolition of the 1-cent toll for passengers using the promenades.

   Another cause was the installation of the elevated railway and trolley lines on the bridge and the discontinuance of the bridge cars by the city."

   By referencing the following 1905 Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, page 455 (seen at right); it lists the following tolls. It appears pedestrians / foot passengers were no longer required to pay a toll for crossing the Brooklyn Bridge.

   I have since found an earlier reference in the Report of the Industrial Commission on Transportation, May 1901; that being of testimony taken since May 1, 1900 (seen below) to the New York and Brooklyn pedestrian fare being free in 1900.

   So this would date the use of the Promenade t
ickets from 1883 to 1900.




   Upon finding a copy of the "Minutes of the Board of Estimate and Appointment of the City of New York" it is then learned that all the tolls were abolished on all other East River Bridges by August 31, 1911.

   So, what are the ticket worth? Other than essays, proofs, specimens & samples, the issued New York & Brooklyn Bridge Promenade and the New York and Brooklyn Bridge Railroad tickets are common; with no less than half a dozen listed for sale on eBay in Buy It Now or auction formats, in various conditions; at any given time. Furthermore, if you are patient, you will even see them listed in strips of four, five or more tickets still attached.

   Are they worth $45 each? Not on your life. If you think they are, then I've got both a bridge to sell you and swampland in Florida to sell you. And maybe I'll just just list it on eBay as "RARE! Waterfront Property."

   In short, the Brooklyn Bridge Promenade Tickets were not railroad. Not cable car, not trolley car, not elevated railway, not subway or anything else associated with any railroad. They are pure and simply: pedestrian toll tickets. Are they a unique piece of history? Absolutely. Do they carry an aura of nostalgic times of yesteryear? Yes. Are they rare? No.

   Strictly as a convenience to the reader, I include information from the Wikipedia page on the Brooklyn Bridge about the New York and Brooklyn Bridge Railroad for those collecting those ticket issues:


Cable Cars & Elevateds

   The New York and Brooklyn Bridge Railroad, a cable car service, began operating on September 25, 1883; it ran on the inner lanes of the bridge, between terminals at the Manhattan and Brooklyn ends.

   Since Washington Roebling believed that steam trains would bear excessive loads upon the structure of the Brooklyn Bridge, the cable car line was designed as a steam / cable-hauled hybrid. They were powered from a generating station under the Brooklyn approach. The cable cars could not only regulate their speed on the ​3 3⁄4% upward and downward approaches, but also maintain a constant interval between each other. There were 24 cable cars in total. 

   Initially, the service ran with single-car trains, but patronage soon grew so much that by October 1883, two-car trains were in use. The line carried three million people in the first six months, nine million in 1884, and nearly 20 million in 1885 following the opening of the Brooklyn Union Elevated Railroad. Accordingly, the track layout was rearranged and more trains were ordered. At the same time, there were highly controversial plans to extend the elevated railroads onto the Brooklyn Bridge, under the pretext of extending the bridge itself. After disputes, ultimately the trustees agreed to build two elevated routes to the bridge on the Brooklyn side.

   Patronage continued to increase, and in 1888, the tracks were lengthened and even more cars were constructed to allow for four-car trains of cable cars. Electric wires for the trolleys were added by 1895, potentially allowing for the future decommissioning of the steam / cable system. The terminals were rebuilt once more in July 1895, and following the implementation of new electric cars in late 1896, the steam engines were dismantled and sold.

   Following unification of the cities of New York and Brooklyn in 1898, the New York and Brooklyn Bridge Railroad ceased to be a separate entity that June, and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) assumed control of the line. The BRT started running through-services of elevated trains, which ran from Park Row Terminal in Manhattan to points in Brooklyn via the Sands Street station on the Brooklyn side. Before reaching Sands Street (at Tillary Street for Fulton Street Line trains, and at Bridge Street for Fifth Avenue Line and Myrtle Avenue Line trains), elevated trains bound for Manhattan swapped their steam locomotives for the cable cars, which would pull the passenger carriages across the bridge.

   Through services were discontinued from 1899 to 1901, and due to increased patronage following the opening of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT)'s first subway line, the Park Row station was rebuilt in 1906. At one point, there were also plans for Brooklyn Bridge trains to run underground to the BRT's proposed Chambers Street station in Manhattan, though work on the connection was never completed. The overpass across William Street was closed in 1913 to make way for the proposed connection, but reopened in 1929 after it became clear that the connection would not be built.

   After the IRT's Joralemon Street Tunnel and the Williamsburg Bridge tracks opened in 1908, the Brooklyn Bridge no longer held a monopoly on rail service between Manhattan and Brooklyn, and cable service ceased. New subway lines from the IRT and from the BRT's successor Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT), built in the 1910s and 1920s, posed significant competition to the Brooklyn Bridge rail services. With the opening of the Independent Subway System in 1932, and the subsequent unification of all three companies into a single entity in 1940, the elevated services started to decline, and the Park Row and Sands Street stations were greatly reduced in size. The Fifth Avenue and Fulton Street services across the Brooklyn Bridge were discontinued in 1940 and 1941 respectively, and the elevated tracks were abandoned permanently with the withdrawal of Myrtle Avenue services in 1944.

Trolleys

   A plan for trolley service across the Brooklyn Bridge was presented in 1895, and the Brooklyn Bridge trustees agreed two years later to a plan where trolleys could run across the bridge under ten-year contracts. Trolley service, which began in 1898, ran on what are now the two middle lanes of each roadway (shared with other traffic). When cable service was withdrawn in 1908, the trolley tracks on the Brooklyn side were rebuilt to alleviate congestion. Trolley service on the middle lanes continued until the elevated lines stopped using the bridge in 1944, when they moved to the protected center tracks on the left sides of the roadways. On March 5, 1950, the streetcars also stopped running, and the bridge was redesigned for automobile traffic exclusively.


Please refer to the Wikipedia page for the Brooklyn Bridge - Rail Traffic for citations.



Manhattan Bridge

   Literally within minutes of going public with this page, George S. Cuhaj, (an established token collector and author) sends me the following image, asking if I would include the East River Bridge issues on the page? Sure, why not! After all, they are bridge tickets from New York City, right?

   The following is a fare ticket for a led horse on the carriageway of the Manhattan Bridge. I believe the cost was 3 cents, and it is facsimile signed by J. W. Stevenson, Commissioner of Bridges for the City of New York. The Manhattan Bridge opened on December 31, 1909.

   This piece is interesting to say the least, and according to the Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume 45, 1919; horse-drawn traffic on the Manhattan Bridge was prohibited during certain times of the day:

"The Manhattan Bridge roadway is 35 feet wide, sufficient to pass two lanes of traffic in each direction. In order to care for the morning and evening rush-hour traffic on this bridge, horse-drawn vehicles are prohibited from crossing from Brooklyn in the evening period and from Manhattan in the morning period. During both these periods this traffic is diverted to the Brooklyn Bridge, making it possible to accommodate three lines on the Manhattan Bridge from Brooklyn in the morning rush and to Brooklyn in the evening rush."

   Further research has uncovered that the four East River Crossings (from south to north): Brooklyn Bridge, Manhattan Bridge, Williamsburg Bridge and the Queensboro Bridges collected tolls for use of the roadway. To be absolutely clear, these were NOT a collection of fares for the streetcars or trolley lines crossing those bridges; this was automobiles, horses & horse & wagons utilizing the roadway. It is further understood the toll was 10 cents for automobiles.

   Take note of the artwork at the top of the Brooklyn Bridge Promenade ticket above; and compare to the artwork of this Manhattan Bridge ticket. it is the same silhouette of the tower with Gothic arches with cables! In reality, the Manhattan Bridge has a single Roman arch. Apparently, the same artwork was used, or at least copied; from the Brooklyn Bridge issue.

Department of Bridges - City of New York
Manhattan Bridge


Form E - December 31st, 1909
3 cent toll ticket for led horse on carriageway.


collection of George S. Cuhaj




Williamsburg Bridge

   Further research on the subject has revealed that the Williamsburg Bridge also collected tolls for automobile and horse drawn traffic crossing the span. Again, this was not a fare collected for streetcar or trolley car lines crossing the bridge.

   It is understood the toll was the same as the Manhattan Bridge and fixed at 10 cents for automobiles.

   At this time, tickets or scrip have not been seen.



.
Blackwells Island / 59th Street / Queensboro Bridge

   From the same documents that revealed the collection of tolls for the Williamsburg Bridge, it was also learned the Blackwell's Island Bridge collected a toll as well. This bridge is better known today as the Queensboro - 59th Street Bridge.

   And once again, to be absolutely clear, this was a toll for automobiles and horse drawn vehicles, and was in the amount of 10 cents.



Abolition of Tolls on East River Bridges

   We also now know, by way of the following New York Times article dated July 7, 1911; why toll collection on the East River Bridges ceased.



 
.
The Predecessor Agencies to the TBTA

 
.

   When originally organized, each of the crossings was operated under its own administrative entity:
  • the Triborough Bridge Authority in 1933,
  • Henry Hudson Parkway Authority in 1934, 
  • Marine Parkway Authority (which included the Cross Bay Bridge as well when opened) in 1934,
    and the 
  • Queens Midtown Tunnel Authority in 1935, quickly renamed New York City Tunnel Authority the following year.
 
   Please keep in mind that the incorporation date of the operating entity was usually a few years prior to the actual opening of the crossing.


   As it has been observed, each of these operating agencies issued its own scrip and passes for the express use at their specific crossings; and as far as it known, they were not reciprocal with other crossings or agencies.


   I
t is mentioned in several New York Times articles published prior to the existence of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, one article in particular dated January 19, 1938; that Robert Moses campaigned for the creation of a unified parkway administration agency to administer to all the toll roads and crossings within the City of New York; this to include the existing Henry Hudson Parkway Authority and the Marine Parkway Authority. Robert Moses was chairman and sole member of those Henry Hudson and Marine Parkway Authorities.

   As proposed, these two agencies would be
consolidated into the New York City Parkway Authority in 1938; until that agency itself would be merged into the Triborough Bridge Authority in February 1940 (and with that name being retained) with the passage of the "Crews-Nunan" bill. Not so coincidentally, Mr. Moses was also in charge of the Triborough Bridge Authority.

   At this juncture, the New York City Tunnel Authority (former Queens Midtown Tunnel Authority) was not part of this organization and was administered to separately until 1946.



.

.
Scrip / Tickets   

   Mentioned in a New York Times article dated July 16, 1939; are the give-aways of a 50 ticket book to drivers on "landmark" occasions: one millionth auto to cross the bridge, the two millionth, and so on; over particular crossings. In this particular case, the driver of the 4,000,000th car at the Marine Parkway Bridge received a book of 50 toll tickets.

   This same article above also describes the lowering of the toll on the Marine Parkway Bridge from 15 cents to 10 cents upon the opening of the Crossbay Parkway Bridge (which took place June 3, 1939 - just 45 days prior) and the 1,000,000th automobile was expected to cross the bridge the following week!  

   That number doesn't seem impressive by today's standards, and granted a lot of those are round trip crossings by residents of Brooklyn and Queens; but when you consider there were only just over twenty-six million private automobiles registered for the entire United States in 1939, four million autos at only one minor non-interstate crossing in the City of New York does leave one a little impressed.
   
   It is with utmost thanks to Ms. Nellie Hankins, Assistant Archivist for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority - Bridges & Tunnels, that I am proud to share the following with you. I received a reply to my email inquiry and request of 01 October 2019 on 22 October:

"There are TBTA predecessor agency toll tickets in our collection dating back to 1939 (they may have been issued as early as 1936). The early ones were special passes issued for free passage to military vehicles, vehicles on government business, and employees at Manhattan State Hospital on Randall's Island.

The New York City Tunnel Authority sold toll tickets from the Queens Midtown Tunnel beginning in 1940, and TBTA began selling tickets in 1946. The ones that you sent were the square punchcard variety that were issued beginning in 1963, although yours are slightly later (c. 1970).

I have attached an image of the tokens with their release dates, as well as order sheets for various denominations of tickets. While there were relatively few types of tokens issued, there were many types of scrip issued by TBTA and its predecessor agencies. The attached samples and price lists are not exhaustive.

I’m attaching examples of toll tickets to a separate email."

.

.
   Without any doubt, Ms. Hankins apparently went all out and spent three weeks (or a very good portion of it at least!) searching through the TBTA/MTA archives, because I was sent three emails with more images and pdf's than I know what to do with!

  It should be remembered, that the
Henry Hudson Parkway Authority, Marine Parkway Authority and the Triborough Bridge Authority all operated concurrently. Each crossing in essence was operated as its own authority.




Individual (Predecessor) Authority Scrip Issues - 1936 to 1946:


Please Note:
On some scrip, the date on the design is the incorporation date for the agency, NOT the date the bridge(s) or tunnel opened; e.g.: the New York City Tunnel Authority was chartered 1936
and as such is displayed as "AD 1936" in the agency seal on the script design. But in actuality the Queens Midtown Tunnel did not open to traffic until 1940.




Henry Hudson Parkway Authority Issues: ca. 1941
Henry Hudson Parkway Authority - ca. 1941 - ?
Toll Permit for Official Business
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
New York City Parkway Authority Issues: 1939 to 1946
Cross Bay Parkway Bridge - Toll Permit for Official Business (book cover) - ca. 1939
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
New York City Tunnel Authority (Queens Midtown Tunnel) Issues: 1940 to 1946
25 cent - 1940 to 1946
facsimile signature of Fearson Shortridge, manager
printed by American Bank Note Company
Heritage Auction Archives
.

.
 
Special Ticket for Queens Midtown Tunnel - ca. 1940 to 1946
issued to secretary of the Mayor of New York City (Fiorello H. LaGuardia)
printed by The Jarrett Press.
facsimile signature of Fearson Shortridge, manager
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
Triborough Bridge Authority Issues: 1936 to 1946
    
Official Ticket for Bronx Whitestone Bridge only - 1/16/1947
facsimile signature of Paul Loeser, general manager (1934-1943)
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.

"C" Official Ticket for Cross Bay Bridge? City? only
owner: Department of Sanitation?
with facsimile signature of Paul Loeser, general manager (1934-1943)
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

"C" Official Ticket for Cross Bay Bridge? City? only - 1/19/1947
without facsimile signature of Paul Loeser, general manager
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.

Official Ticket - general issue - good for all crossings
owner: Long Island State Parkway Commission

facsimile signature of Paul Loeser, general manager (1934-1943)
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives



TABLE OF CONTENTS




   
.
Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority / MTA Bridges & Tunnels
(and its predecessors)
.


the Seal of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority
.
       The Triborough Bridge Authority, upon absorbing the New York City Tunnel Authority in 1946; was now renamed the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority (colloquially called "the TBTA" and remained so until 1994.

   Under the auspices of the TBTA, we would see the openings of the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel (long planned as a bridge since the 1930's), the Throgs Neck Bridge in 1961 and the Verrazano Narrows Bridge in 1961.

   With t
hese final three crossings, the TBTA would now have a total of ten bridges and tunnels to administer to, and all of them borough to borough crossings; that is any bridge or tunnel crossing within the city and state of New York. These crossings include those between:

Brooklyn and Queens:
original name "memorial" name date opened
Marine Parkway Bridge Gil Hodges Bridge July 3, 1937
Cross Bay Bridge Veterans Memorial Bridge June 3, 1939
rebuilt: May 28, 1970
Brooklyn and Manhattan:
Brooklyn Battery Tunnel Hugh L. Carey Tunnel May 25, 1950
Brooklyn and Staten Island:
Verrazano Narrows Bridge upper deck: November 21, 1964
lower deck: June 28, 1969
 Queens and the Bronx:
Triborough Bridge Robert F. Kennedy Bridge July 11, 1936
Bronx-Whitestone Bridge April 29, 1939
Throgs Neck Bridge January 11, 1961
Queens and Manhattan:
Triborough Bridge Robert F. Kennedy Bridge July 11, 1936
Queens Midtown Tunnel November 15, 1940
and finally, between Bronx and Manhattan:
Henry Hudson Parkway Bridge December 12, 1936
(administered by TBA beginning 1941)
.
  Before progressing any further, it should be noted that this website will be using the classic (yet incorrect) spelling of Verrazano, because that is the spelling so used on scrip and token issues.
The correct spelling is with two z's: Verrazzano.

.

   As you can see, all these crossings were within the City and State of New York. Those crossings that were interstate fell under the administration of the Port of New York Authority, and are discussed in the second half of this website.
   Also, while not within the scope of this website; the TBTA also administered to and operated several other non-parkway / bridge properties, those being the: Jacob Riis Park Parking Field, Brooklyn Battery Garage, East Side Airline Terminal and the New York Coliseum.

   The TBTA name remains in use and still exists; however, in 1994 it became part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) Bridges and Tunnels. While it still exists, it conducts business as ("d/b/a") MTA Bridges & Tunnels in keeping with the unified Metropolitan Transportation Authority theme, i.e.: MTA Transit (NYC Subways), MTA LIRR (Long Island Rail Road), MTA MNCR (MetroNorth Commuter Railroad), etc.

Scrip & Tokens
   At the time of first publishing this website in October 2019; the only paper issues that I had encountered for the Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority, were IBM style punch card tickets from the 1963 and an empty booklet cover from about the mid-1980's.

   With the assistance of Ms. Hankins, I can now compile the following list of scrip and token issues and usage dates over the decades.

   Also, it should be noted; the naming of the scrip issues (First, Second, Third, et al) are not official TBTA terminology; but names I have associated with the various designs to more easily identify and categorize the various issues.

   "First" and "Second" Issues all appear to be printed by the Elliott Ticket Company of New York. The "Third" Issue or "Univac" Series, were printed by either Univac, IBM, Osceola Graphics and a possible fourth yet unknown printer. Examples of the "Fourth" Issue (large barcode) are known to have circulated but printer(s) are unknown. The "Fifth" and "Sixth" Issues, while known are printed by a currently unknown printer.

   As for Token Issues, some issues are known to have been struck by Roger Williams Mint.


Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority Scrip & Token Issues: 1946 - 2012
Please remember, and I cannot stress this strongly enough;
Tickets from earlier issues were redeemable even after a new design issue was released (a new design issue did not render the previous issue void).
Therefore various issues were used concurrently.


"First" Series Scrip
(denomination bottom right corner)
1946 to ca. 1950
"Second" Series Scrip
(denomination bottom center)
ca. 1950 to ca. 1963
"Third" Series Scrip
(Univac, Univac / IBM and IBM punch cards)
1963 to ca. 1976
Tokens
(four issues)
June 1976 to 1998
"Fourth" Series Scrip
(large size barcode tickets) 
1976? to June 19, 1986 .

unknown at this time

.
"Fifth" Series Scrip
(small size barcode tickets)
June 19, 1986 to 1994?
"Sixth" Series Scrip
(final issue barcode tickets)
1994? to 2012  




Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority Scrip & Token Issues: 1946 - 2012
.
.
"First" Series - 1946 to ca. 1950
Garage & Servicing Ticket for Park Department Vehicles
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
Class 3 - 35 cent ticket for Motor Truck, 2 axles, 2-5 tons for Triborough Bridge & Bronx Whitestone Bridge - pre-1946
Queens Midtown Tunnel not listed.
JOHN F. TROMMER, INC. overstamp
Elliott Ticket Company
John F. Trommer was a brewery in Orange, NJ and only operated under that name from 1946 through 1950.
Prior to that it was known as Orange Brewing, and John F. Trommer of New Jersey.
Following 1950, it was purchased by Leibmann Breweries and eventually became part of Rheingold Breweries.

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
   
Class 1 - 25 cent ticket (Queens Midtown Tunnel added) - 1/11/1952
Department of Sanitation overstamp
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
Class 3 - 40 cent ticket for Motor Truck, 2 axles, 2-5 tons for Triborough Bridge & Bronx Whitestone Bridge
Queens Midtown Tunnel added - post-1946
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
"Second" Series - ca. 1950's - 1960's

10 cent ticket - 1/17/1952
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
25 cent ticket - 8/8/1962
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
   
35 cent ticket - 1/30/1952
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
40 cent ticket
Elliott Ticket Company
"Eat Well Meats"
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
60 cent ticket - 8/8/1962
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.

..

75 cent ticket - stamped 6/30/1962
general issue and with FOR USE BY GEROSA VEHICLES ONLY overstamp
Elliott Ticket Company
Gerosa was founded 1917, with its origins in the Bronx with trucking and hauling.

It remains a rigging & hoisting firm in New Jersey.
note the backstamp bleed through on left edge above the 'G' in Gerosa - it appears to be the date of 1961

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
$1.25 - 8/10/1962
perforated: "U S " (presumably government issue)
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.

.
Special Ticket - 1/18/1962
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
   
Special Ticket for Henry Hudson Bridge - 1952
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
Special Ticket for Triborough Bridge - Randall's Island Only - 8/2/1962
Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
Booklet cover for 20 tickets - $2.00 (.10 cents each) for Minor Crossings - 3/6/1962
Passenger Automobiles at: Henry Hudson, Marine Parkway or Cross Bay Bridges
or
Motor Truck (2 axle) less than 2 tons at: Marine Parkway or Cross Bay Bridges

Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
Booklet cover for 20 tickets - $20.00 ($1.00 each) for Major Crossings - no date
3 axle Truck, Tractor, Franchise Bus or Passenger Automobile with semi-trailer at Brooklyn Battery Tunnel
or
4 axle Truck, Tractor, Non-Franchise Bus or Passenger Automobile with trailer at: Triborough, Bronx-Whitestone or Throngs Neck Bridges
or Queens Midtown Tunnel


(presumed to be ca. 1952 - 1963 when the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel toll was higher than other crossings upon opening,
and before issue of the Univac style tickets and before the opening of the Verrazano Narrows Bridge.)

Elliott Ticket Company
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.


"Third" Series The Univac Issues - 1963 to ca. 1976

   
   In 1963, a new style of toll scrip was introduced and circulated: the punch cards.

   Some dedicated searching of the world wide web revealed some information on the the toll ticket machines used by the TBTA; from the "VIP Club", a club of retirees from IBM, Remington Rand, Sperry, Univac, Unisys, and other assorted information technology development firms.

   On page 158 of
"UNIVAC PRODUCTS - ST. PAUL A Handbook of Major Products Designed, Developed, and Manufactured a ST. PAUL 16, MINNESOTA; 1947 to 1959" the following is found:

TOLL TICKET READER AND RECORDER

DESCRIPTION

The Univac Toll Ticket Reader and Recorder provides a detailed record on punched tape of cash and toll ticket transactions at a toll gate.

The Ticket Reader equipment comprises the following units: Classified Push Button Panel, Key Identifier Unit, Ticket Reader Assembly.

The Classification Push Button Panel has keys numbered one through nine for designating classes, with a tenth key for special classifications. This keyboard creates the classification entry into the recorder.

The Ticket Reader Assembly senses information from small punched toll tickets, and transmits this information to the recorder.

The Key Identifier Unit provides means for unlocking the equipment to render it operable, simultaneously entering into it the identifying number of the key used, and retaining the key until the equipment is turned off.

The Toll Punching Recorder was developed initially for use by the Triborough Bridge Authority in New York.
It operates in conjunction with the Classification Push Button Panel and Key Identifier Unit. One Recorder issued for each pair of vehicle lanes.

Portions of the Toll Ticket Reader and Recorder are manufactured by Electronic Signal Co. under license to Remington Rand Univac.

PURPOSE

The equipment was designed primarily as part of a Toll Accounting system and can be used to record classification data on a maximum of 10 different classes of vehicles, and data from toll tickets received in lieu of cash.

In five-hole punched paper tape, the equipment records data from the Ticket Reader Unit and axle counts from a treadle in the roadway. It also records the identification number of the lane and of the collector whose key is inserted in the Identifier Unit. A classification is punched for each vehicle transaction, with an initial record punched when the collector turns the equipment on and a terminal record when he turns it off. These initial and terminal transactions cause a record of the time and the number of axles in each direction as then recorded on the axle counters to be punched in the tape, along with the lane and collector numbers. They also reset the counters. A display of the recorded information on light banks is provided for maintenance purposes.

The Recorder accumulates and displays on electromechanical counters the number of vehicles in each of 10 classes and the number of treadle actuations in each direction. It also displays treadle actuations in each direction which occur when the lane is closed. A printed paper tape record of the information is produced by the equipment, and a punched tape record is made from the counters whenever a lane is closed.
.

.
   Both cards in my collection, the 75¢ and $1.00 denomination; do not reflect a printer, but have Univac and IBM style holes. They carry
a serial number prefix of UD, and both carry a printing code of P25191R: the 75 cent is P25191R.14 and the dollar is P25191R.16.

   Shortly following the internet publication of this website (like, within hours), George S. Cuhaj submitted two examples for inclusion. His two tickets are marked for Univac 25191R.2 (10 cent) and IBM Z38345 (Cross Bay Bridge), so we are now able to conclude the type of machines used for toll collection.

   Note the two different style of punchholes. The Univac style has round punchouts (also known as Hollerith style, after the inventor of punch cards, Herman Hollerith), while the IBM style has rectangular punchouts.
These punch cards allowed automatic tabulation and accounting upon issue and upon redemption.

   There are three distinct types of punch cards known for the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority:
.

   And while commonly thought of as mid-Twentieth Century technology, use of the punched cards
for tabulation dates back as far as 1896.

   I originally thought that the TBTA punch cards may be a circa 1950's issue; h
owever, this was an incorrect presumption on my part. If the information received from Ms. Hankins of the TBTA archives is correct (and we have no reason to suspect it otherwise), the all Univac are the first issued punch cards, first issued in 1963; and the Univac / IBM are from circa 1970. She did not specify when the all IBM card were issued; can we presume afterwards?

   All punch cards are single sided with a beveled bottom right corner and all appear to be uniform in size and thickness: 3 ¼" (width) - 2
13/16" (height) - 0.0075" (thickness). 

.
10 cent ticket - 1963
Univac style

collection of George S. Cuhaj
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:

printing code:
Univac only
Univac
beige card stock, black ink
prefix: UC; black sans-serif
round punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
P-25191R.2
.

.
25 cent ticket - ca. 1970
Univac / IBM style
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:

printing code:
Univac & IBM
unknown
blue card stock, black ink
prefix: UK; black sans-serif
round punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
P-R25191R.4
.

.
35 cent ticket - ca. 1970
Univac / IBM style
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:


printing code:
Univac & IBM
unknown
buff card stock, black & orange ink
prefix: UD; black sans-serif
round & rectangular punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle,
orange diagonal stripe
P-R25191R.6
.

.
40 cent ticket - ca. 1970
Univac / IBM style
 
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:

printing code:
Univac & IBM
unknown
salmon card stock, black ink
prefix: UF; black sans-serif
round & rectangular punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
P-R25191R.8
.

.
50 cent ticket - ca. 1970
IBM style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:



printing code:
IBM,
IBM
beige card stock, light green dyed edges; black ink
prefix: UV; black sans-serif
rectangular punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
fuchsia overtype: OFFICIAL BUSINESS -
CITY OF NEW YORK
P-R25191R.8
.

.
50 cent ticket - Manhattan State Hospital? - ca. 1970
IBM style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:




printing code:
IBM
Osceola Graphics, Inc
beige card stock; black & green ink
prefix: MA; black sans-serif
round punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
green overprint: RANDALL'S ISLAND ONLY
NO RECEIPT
green vertical stripe on right edge
P-R25191R.10
.

.
60 cent ticket - 1963
Univac style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:
printing code:
Univac only
Univac
peach card stock, black ink
prefix: UB; black sans-serif
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
P25191R.12
.

.
75 cent ticket - ca. 1970
Univac / IBM style
 
authors collection
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:

printing code:
Univac & IBM
unknown
light green card stock, black ink
prefix: UD; black sans-serif
round punchholes; note the offset ink transfer on the back.
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
P-25191R.14
.

.
75 cent ticket - ca. 1970
Univac / IBM style 
FOR USE ON UNITED PARCEL VEHICLES ONLY MASPETH overstamp
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:


printing code
Univac & IBM
unknown
beige cardstock, black ink
prefix: UF; black sans-serif
round & rectangular punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
FOR USE ON UNITED PARCEL VEHICLES ONLY MASPETH overstamp
P-25191R.14
.

.

$1.00 ticket - ca. 1970
Univac / IBM style

authors collection
card style
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:

printing code:
Univac & IBM
unknown
beige cardstock, black ink
prefix: UD; black sans-serif
round & rectangular punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
P-25191R.16
.

.
$1.00 ticket - 8/30/1979
IBM style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnels archives
card style
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:

printing code:
IBM
IBM
beige cardstock, black ink
prefix: US; black sans-serif
rectangular punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle
W51672
.

.
$1.00 ticket - ca. 1970
Univac / IBM style

FOR USE ON UNITED PARCEL VEHICLES ONLY MASPETH overstamp
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:



printing code:
Univac & IBM
unknown
beige card stock, black & orange ink
prefix: UB; black sans-serif
round & rectangular punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle,
diagonal orange stripe
FOR USE ON UNITED PARCEL VEHICLES ONLY MASPETH overstamp
P-25191R.18
.

.
$1.50 ticket - ca. 1970
Univac / IBM style

FOR USE BY JOSEPH CORY DELIVERY SERVICE ONLY overstamp
Joseph Cory was a "last mile" delivery service specializing in furniture & appliances. After an item was hauled interstate from one terminal to another terminal, Joseph Cory Delivery would deliver it the "last mile" from that terminal to the customer. Their terminal in the New York City area was originally in Manhattan, then they relocated to Secaucus, NJ.
Cory Co. existed until 2019 at which time it was acquired by J. B. Hunt; interstate trucking.

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:



printing code:
Univac & IBM
unknown
beige card stock, black & red ink
prefix: UB; black sans-serif
round & rectangular punchholes
Good For Passage of Motor Vehicle,
vertical red stripe on right side
overstamp for Joseph Cory Delivery Service
P-25191R.34
.

.

.
Passenger Car or Motorcycle ticket Good for Cross Bay "Veterans Memorial" Bridge - ca. 1970 & 3/28/1979
IBM style
(top) collection of George S. Cuhaj
(bottom) collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:


printing code
IBM only
IBM
peach card stock with dyed ends; black ink
prefix: AA, AB: black sans-serif
large outline "C" on face
FOR PASSENGER CAR OR MOTORCYCLE
GOOD ONLY AT CROSS BAY VETERANS MEMORIAL BRIDGE
IBM Z38345
.

.
Special Ticket - 4/27/1967
Univac style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:
printing code:
Univac only
Univac
light gray card stock; black ink
prefix: UA; black sans-serif
SPECIAL TICKET VALID ON ALL FACILITIES
P-25191R.24
.

.

Special Ticket Valid on All Facilities - ca. 1970
IBM style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:
security underprinting:

printing code:
IBM only
IBM
white card stock; black & gold ink
prefix: U I; small red serif
SPECIAL TICKET VALID ON ALL FACILITIES
gold ink, progressively larger concentric diamonds
IBM E724268
.

.
Special Ticket Valid on All Facilities, Type 2 - 8/7/1979
IBM style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:
security underprinting:

printing code:
IBM only
IBM
light gray card stock; black ink
prefix: UE; black sans-serif
SPECIAL TICKET VALID ON ALL FACILITIES
none
IBM W51676
.

.
Special Ticket for Queens Midtown Tunnel - 11/16/1967
Univac style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:
printing code:
Univac only
Univac
light gray card stock; black ink
prefix: UA; black sans-serif
SPECIAL TICKET FOR ____________
P-25191R.28
.

.
Special Ticket for Triborough Bridge - Manhattan State Hospital Issue? - 1963
Univac style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:

printing code:
Univac only
unknown
light gray card stock; black ink
prefix: UA; black sans-serif
SPECIAL TICKET FOR TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE (outlined T)
FOR RANDALL'S ISLAND ONLY overprint
P-25191R.28
.

.
Garage and Servicing Ticket
For Park Department Vehicles -
111/14/1967
Univac style

collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:



printing code:
Univac only
Univac
light gray card stock; black & blue ink
prefix: UA; black sans-serif;
GARAGE AND SERVICING TICKET OR
PARK DEPARTMENT VEHICLES
FOR RANDALL'S ISLAND ONLY overprint
blue horizontal stripe
P-25191R.31
.

.
Garage and Servicing Ticket
For Park Department Vehicles - 10/15/1981
-
IBM style
T. Vinetti park supervisor overstamp
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:



printing code:
IBM only
IBM
light gray card stock; blue side edges; black ink
prefix: UA; black sans-serif;
GARAGE AND SERVICING TICKET OR
PARK DEPARTMENT VEHICLES
FOR RANDALL'S ISLAND ONLY overprint
blue horizontal stripes on left & right edges
IBM W51679
.

.
   In regards to the following cover for the Cross Bay Bridge / Veterans Memorial Bridge (which is for the ticket above); my internet research has not revealed what year "Veterans Memorial" was added to the name. Knowing this, would definitely give a fair approximation of the issue date. Since the Marine Parkway Bridge is overstamped on the booklet cover, can we conclude this booklet was issued soon after 1937 when the Marine Parkway Bridge was built, until new tickets including the bridge could be printed?

   But, I also took note that this issue has 5 digit zip codes listed for neighborhoods in Rockaway:

11691 - Bayswater
11692 - Arverne
11693 - Rockaway Beach
11694 - Rockaway Park
11695 - Far Rockaway
11697 - Roxbury


   As the US Post Office Department did not institute the 5 digit zip code until July 1, 1963; I think we may have a better approximation of the issue date of these tickets. I also note that they are called "postal zones" and not zip codes. "Postal zone" was the old nomenclature prior to the 5 digit zip code, so by the combination of the old name and the new 5 digit zip code, I would say these were issued very shortly after July 1963. Confirming this issue date is Ms. Hankins' reply to my inquiry.

.
.
Book Cover for Passenger Car or Motorcycle ticket
Good for Cross Bay "Veterans Memorial" Bridge
with "ALSO FOR USE AT MARINE PARKWAY BRIDGE" overprint
40 tickets, $10 - Rockaway Resident
(front cover for ticket which may be seen above)

collection of George S. Cuhaj
card style:
printer:
colors:
serial number:
notes:




printing code:
IBM
IBM
peach, black ink - back: none
not on cover

FOR USE AT CROSS BAY VETERANS MEMORIAL BRIDGE ONLY FOR PASSENGER CARS AND MOTORCYCLES OWNED BY PERSONS RESIDING WITHIN POSTAL ZONES #11691
 #11692  #11693  #11694  #11695 and #11697
with added stamp: ALSO FOR USE AT MARINE PARKWAY BRIDGE
IBM Z38346
.




Please note:
The next chronological issue of toll payment to be released following the Univac punch cards is technically the token issues; which entered circulation in 1976.
These tokens are covered in a separate chapter on this website a little further on and following the scrip, and as I wanted to keep all the paper scrip issues together.

.

.
   One of the internal documents that was included in Ms. Hankins' email caught me off guard.

   According to the intra-governmental order dated December 8, 1986 seen at right, you will take note that tokens AND tickets are available at the same time.

   I (erroneously) was under the conclusion the tokens replaced the older Univac scrip, and then the bar code scrip replaced the tokens as the toll tariffs exceeded the highest value token of $1.00, or at least a combination of tokens, i.e.: a 50 cent and $1.00 for a combined value of $1.50.

   But this turns out not to be the case, as this order form clearly lists token and ticket issues available for purchase concurrently.

   This document also conveniently reflects the denominations of scrip tickets available at the end of 1986, as well informs us as to the discount of 10% off the full toll fare, when purchasing books of 20 tickets.

   Another interesting fact in regards to this document; is that while rolls of tokens are not listed on the public order forms as seen in the
Internal Documents & Reference Materials chapter further on in this website, they are listed on the inter-governmental order as seen to the right.

   Tokens were apparently available by special arrangement, in particular for ordering by the government. Note next to Order Number: "Intra Governmental".

   Presumably, either special postal arrangements were made, a courier was used or in dealing with a large quantity of tokens, an armored truck or carrier.

   A quick web search of the address listed for the "U.S. Property & Fiscal Officer, NJ" reveals this address is still valid, and is home to the State of New Jersey Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, including Army and Air National Guards.

 
.

.
"Fourth" Series Large Barcode Issues (unseen) - ca. 1976 to June 19, 1986

   According to internal documents of the TBTA (as seen to right) dated 1986, there was a large size (size not noted) barcode issue, that was replaced with a small size barcode issue of 3 3/4" x 2 1/8".

   At this time, no known images exist of this "large barcode" script issue.  

   However, the subsequent issue (which numerically would be the "Fifth" Series) is described and photostatic copies are included in the memo at right..

   Note the design: a double-ended arrow, with the barcode to right comprising the shaft of the arrow.


   Unfortunately, color scans of these issues were not in the MTA Archives, but the colors of each denomination are at least specified in the memo.

   Remember: these are the "Fourth Series" /  smaller size barcode scrip that replaced the large barcode scrip (which again, are unfortunately not even illustrated).

   This memo also mentions the IBM punch card tickets, so we can surmise the following order of issuance (usage overlaps) for TBTA Scrip & Tokens:



Univac / IBM punch cards: 
1963 - 1970

tokens: 
1976 - 1998

large size barcode tickets (none shown) 
1976? to June 19, 1986

small size (fifth series) barcode tickets (b&w copies on bottom of memo to right, hypothetical color tickets next paragraph below): 
June 19, 1986 to ca. 1994

final issue (sixth series) barcode tickets (next chapter): 
1994 to 2012.

.

.
"Fifth" Series Small Barcode Issues - June 19, 1986 to ca. 1994
.
   After reading the above memo outlining the new small barcode issue of scrip; and only having a black & white copy, I was feeling like something was missing. I also was feeling a little creative, so with a little work with Picasa image editor and MS Paint, I have come up with an approximation of what the "Fifth series" small barcode tickets should appear like, based on the colors listed in the above memo:



  According to a study performed by the firm URS for the TBTA: "HISTORY AND PROJECTION OF TRAFFIC, TOLL REVENUES AND EXPENSES and REVIEW OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONS Of the Facilities of TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE AND TUNNEL AUTHORITY - April 29, 2005"; it states on page 14:

"Over the years, various discount programs have been introduced. In March 1987, the Staten Island Carpool Program was initiated. Staten Island residents were offered 30-round trip coupons for vehicles with three or more occupants at a discounted price of $30.00. This program was revised to 24 coupons for $30.00 in July 1989, to 24 coupons for $42.00 in May 2003, and to 24 coupons for $54.00 in March 2005."

   With this information, the first two dates (March 1987 and July 1989) fall into the usage era of the Fifth Series. While the VNB Carpool tickets mentioned for this issue has not yet been seen, it can be presumed to be similar to the approximate design:




.

.


"Sixth" Series (and final?) Issues - ca. 1994 to 9/30/2017
   
   I had been hoping that at some point, an issue of TBTA scrip would appear that would correspond to the empty booklet cover I have in my collection. The ticket stubs in my booklet have backs
of light green security printing consisting of a repeating TBTA seal. Under the glued black binding of front and rear covers, is 06-2109B-560 (A), and on the front of each of the 24 remaining stubs is 06-1X09-B570 and VN-CAR.

   I had therefore concluded this was a commutation booklet for passenger cars for Verrazano Narrows Bridge. But what did the tickets look like???

   As I processed the images contained within the emails from Ms. Hankins to use here, and as I saw this issue was orange color for most of the scrip, I was growing worried I may never find the answer to my quest. That was until I saw the V. N. Carpool ticket. Green! So, I can now confirm visually what tickets went into my booklet: VN-CAR = VN Carpool.
(And it is refreshing to know I was correct - for once! ))

   Visual examination of the tickets in this series, reflect all denominational issues are orange, with the TBTA seal security underprint. In the center of each note, is an unprinted white rectangle which contains the serial number in barcode format. It is presumed the barcode is UV reflective, but this is not confirmed. I also noticed, that the denomination of each note is now carried in two locations on the face: on the bottom approximately left of center, and on the right edge of the note oriented vertically.

   As previously stated, the Verrazano Narrows Carpool ticket is green, the Special ticket is slate gray and the Garage & Servicing Randall's Island ticket is lilac / lavender. But the interesting issue for this series is undoubtedly the New York Militia ticket. It is printed in a desert camouflage style and without the repeating TBTA seal. In research for this website, I located an image of half of a ticket that appeared on the cover of a New York Naval Militia newsletter. I made a request to the New York Naval Militia for a scan of the whole ticket was denied (despite their being no longer in use or valid for redemption). So again, with a little time and effort in MS Paint, I recreated a close approximation of its appearance.


$3.50
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
$7.00
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
$10.00
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
$11.00
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
$13.00
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
$19.00 w/ booklet cover
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
$26.00 w/ booklet cover
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
$33.00
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
Verrazano Narrows Bridge Carpool Ticket - 2/19/2004?
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives

Verrazano Narrows Bridge Carpool Ticket Book Cover
authors collection

  According to a study performed by the firm URS for the TBTA: "HISTORY AND PROJECTION OF TRAFFIC, TOLL REVENUES AND EXPENSES and REVIEW OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONS Of the Facilities of TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE AND TUNNEL AUTHORITY - April 29, 2005"; it states on page 14:

"Over the years, various discount programs have been introduced. In March 1987, the Staten Island Carpool Program was initiated. Staten Island residents were offered 30-round trip coupons for vehicles with three or more occupants at a discounted price of $30.00. This program was revised to 24 coupons for $30.00 in July 1989, to 24 coupons for $42.00 in May 2003, and to 24 coupons for $54.00 in March 2005."

   With this information, the first two (March 1987 and July 1989) VNB carpool tickets mentioned for this issue has not yet been seen but presumed to be similar to the Fifth Series design in the preceding chapter.
The second two tickets for May 2003 and March 2005; are represented by the Sixth Series issue immediately above.
.

.

Special Ticket - 11/26/2003?
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives
.

.
New York State Militia Special Ticket
authors rendering from a partial ticket seen in a NY Naval Militia newsletter
.

.
Garage and Servicing Ticket for Park Department Vehicles for Randall's Island Only - 6/26/2009
collection of MTA Bridges & Tunnel Archives



   As far as it is known, this was the last series of scrip tickets to be printed and issued by the Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority; presumably as a result of the expanding success of E-ZPass RFID units.
.
   Beginning on November 20, 2016; "Cashless Tolling" also known as "Tolls By Mail" would be phased in, in increments:

Henry Hudson Bridge November 20, 2016
Brooklyn Battery / Hugh L. Carey Tunnel January 4, 2017
Queens Midtown Tunnel January 10, 2017
Marine Parkway-Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge April 30, 2017
Cross Bay Veterans Bridges April 30, 2017
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge July 8, 2017
Triborough / Robert F. Kennedy Bridge June 15, 2017
Throgs Neck Bridge September 30, 2017
Bronx-Whitestone Bridge September 30, 2017

   With the final crossing being converted September 30, 2017, there are no more toll collectors to issue change or take scrip; and TBTA / MTA Bridges & Tunnels are now strictly an electronic tolling and billing system.
.

.
TABLE OF CONTENTS



Tokens:
June 29, 1976 - February 3, 1998 (Major & Minor Crossings)
Rockaway and Staten Island Resident Tokens remained for sale only to the respective residents until 2015
and redemption ended April 30 (Rockaway) and September 30, 2017 (Staten Island)
.

.
   The TBTA Tokens are the most common issues out of all of the toll memorabilia. At any given time, you can find several, if not dozens; of individual examples for sale on eBay.   

   As it is stated in the Hearings before the Subcommittee on Surface Transportation of the Committee on Public Works and Transportation; House of Representatives - Ninety-Fifth Congress; (September - October 1977)

"In June, 1976, TBTA introduced exact-toll tokens in an effort to reduce congestion at its seven bridges and tunnels within New York City.
Less than one year later, the TBTA had collected its ten millionth exact-toll token.
.


 
 So, with that little blurb; we now know when the "Wheel" tokens first entered service and circulation. But the planning for the use of the tokens actually goes back as far as at a board meeting taking place in May, 1973. Samples of tokens were handed out at a subsequent board meeting in January, 1976, when they (the board) approved the original commutation rate, which was just free passage with the purchase of 20 tokens. 


   With a little more digging; I happened across this rather lengthy article in the New York Times; which contains quite a bit of information regarding the earliest of token issues: the 50, 75 and 100 and the Toll Collectors strike that occurred shortly after their release:

.

.
   Takeaways from this article reveal the following:

  • "The tokens being sold in bulk, in plastic bags for $20 each, ..."
This helps solve an ambiguity later in token history regarding reference to packaging of tokens.

It is assumed the reporter is referring to the $1.00 tokens (twenty x $1.00 = $20.00). There would be no advantage for the motorist in paying more than face value for twenty 75 cent (worth $15.00) and twenty 50 cent tokens (worth $10.00).

The only discount per se, for purchasing the 20 packs of tokens was a free token 
at the time of purchase of the pack of 20 of either of the denominations.

.
  • "... the authority had 500,000 tokens, minted six months ago by a New England Company."
Six months ago from June 1976 would be December 1975. This would correspond with the 1975 date in the Atwood Coffee catalog for these tokens, which in actuality is now understood as an order date, not an issue date.

It now remains to be learned whether it was 500,000 for all three varieties (166,666 each denomination) or 500,000 of each denomination. Somehow, 166,666 tokens does not seem like to be enough to cover all the crossings in New York City at once. 166,666 tokens = 8,333 packs of 20 token plus loose?
But, as Ms. Hankins points out: "the market share initially was very low, because keep in mind that cash and tickets were still being accepted. By July, 1977 token use was only at 8%."

.
  • "The new tokens, in different demonstrations [sic] for different facilities, ..."
1.00 (white metal) = Verrazano Narrows Bridge
.75   (copper) =           Triborough, Bronx Whitestone and Throgs Neck Bridges and the Brooklyn Battery and Queens Midtown Tunnels
.50   (brass) =              Cross Bay, Marine Parkway & Henry Hudson Bridges

.
  • "... minted six months ago by a New England Company." 
While it remains unknown for certain, Roger Williams Mint was located in Massachusetts and Rhode Island; and Scovill Manufacturing was in Waterbury, Connecticut. Both of these were located in New England, along with other manufacturers. Hopefully in the near future we will be able to determine exactly which manufacturer produced these issues..
.

.
Rolls and Packs:
.
   It has to be kept in mind, that the intent of the tokens were not to permit or control admittance to the bridges or tunnels, as the subway tokens were used to gain admittance to the subway. The TBTA tokens were used to encourage prepayment and speed in paying the toll for regular commuters and toll users by using the exact change lanes, and thereby reducing congestion and dwell time at the manned toll booths.

   To further encourage the use of the tokens (and in allowing the agency to hold your money in advance); token rolls (as well as books of scrip) were offered at a discount,
to include the toll payment due at that moment of passage. In other words, if your rolled up to the toll booth in your car and the cash toll was 50 cents; you could hand the toll clerk a $10 bill, and say "a roll". You would get in return: a roll of 20 tokens, a dollar bill for change, maybe a smile and away you drove.

   And so, in consideration of purchasing that roll of tokens in advance, your toll fare was discounted 10% to 45 cents. And that passage at the moment of purchase would be discounted as well.


   It should be known that the discounted price of token rolls varied over time and was not set to one fixed amount due to several factors, whereas the scrip was fixed to a 20% discount. The factors determining the token discount were:

  • the full passenger automobile price of the toll at that time,
  • the agreed upon rate of discount as set forth by the administration tariff sheet.
  • the quantity of tokens in the roll, 
  • the "freebie" (a free token or that trip included) and,
  • whether resident status accorded you an additional discount (Rockaway or Staten Island Residents).

   As a result of these variables, my calculations reflect that over the years the discount varied between 5% up to 44% for the Resident issues. The following table is a comparison of cash (full fare) tolls, regular discount token amounts, the discount offered.

Major Crossings ... Minor Crossings
date
cash (full toll fare)
(Major / VNB)
token
discount %
token for
Staten Island resident
S I Resident
discount %
cash (full toll fare)
token discount %
token
Rockaway Resident
Rockaway
Resident discount
%
June 29, 1976 1 .75 .71 5.33 % n/a n/a .50 .42 16.00 % n/a n/a
March 1, 1976 (VN)
June 29, 1976
1.00 .95 5.00 % n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
May 19, 1980 1.00 ? ? n/a n/a
June 2, 1980
 June 16, 1980
.60 (HH)
.75 (CB & MP)
.50? n/a
April 19, 1982
1.25 1.10 12.00 % n/a n/a .90 .60 33.33 % n/a n/a
June 23, 1983 2 1.25   ~   ~ 1.00 20.00 % .90 .60 33.33% n/a n/a
January 3, 1984 1.50 1.30 13.33% 1.20  20.00 % .90 .60 33.33 % n/a n/a
January 1, 1986 1.75 1.50 14.28% 1.40 20.00 % 1.00 .666 33.40 % n/a n/a
February 7, 1987 2.00 1.70 15.00% 1.60 20.00 %  1.00 .666 33.40 % n/a n/a
March 15, 1987 3 2.00  /  4.00  1.70 15.00 % 1.25 37.50 % n/c n/c n/c n/a n/a
July 16, 1989 2.50  /  5.00 2.10 16.00 % 4.20 16.00 % 1.25 .833 33.36 % n/a n/a
January 31, 1993 3.00  /  6.00 2.50 16.66 % 4.00 33.33 % 1.50 .833 44.46 % n/a n/a
March 24, 1996 4 3.50  /  7.00 3.00  14.28 % 6.00 14.28 % 1.75 1.25 28.57 % 1.00 42.85 %
May 18, 2003 4.00  /  8.00 n/a n/a 5.60  30.00 % 2.00 1.33 33.50 % 1.16 42.00 %
March 15, 2005 4.50  /  9.00 n/a n/a 6.40 28.88 % 2.25 1.33 40.88 % 1.33 40.88 %
March 16, 2008 5.00  /  10.00 n/a n/a 6.70 33.00 % 2.50 1.67 33.20 % 1.40 44.00%
=  Regular discount token sales began June 29, 1976.
=  Staten Island Resident Discount effective on or shortly after this date.
3  =  tolls doubled at Verrazano Narrows Bridge and collected westbound only on and after this date.
4 =  Regular discount token sales ended February 3, 1998. However, token sales for Staten Island & Rockaway Resident appear to have continued until 2015.
      Token redemption ended 
April 30, 2017 Rockaway Residents (Cross Bay & Marine Parkway Bridges) and for Staten Island Residents on September 30, 2017 (Verrazano Narrows Bridge).
      n/a = not applicable,
      n/c = no change

.


   Also, it should be noted that the tokens were only available to Class 1 vehicles (2 axle passenger automobiles with no trailers). All other vehicle classes regularly transiting through the tolls were encouraged to use the scrip.

   As research into this subject continues, more and more roll and pack quantities come to light. To date, we are now aware of rolls of 8, 9, 10, 11, 19 and 20 and packs of 5, 10 and 20; but keep in mind, not all rolls or packs existed at the same time.

   When token packaging first began in June 1976; the .50, .75 and 1.00 "Wheel" tokens were packaged in plastic bags containing 20 tokens. The only "discount" was a free token given with each package. As a result, the discount was minimal: around 5%.

   Unfortunately, I have not found any images of rolls or packs of the "Wheel" style tokens as yet.

   The earliest rolls I now have in my collection, are the brass "Big M" NY630BA M 100 tokens. I was fortunate enough to acquire two different rolls at the same time, each unique on their own. One is red printing and has images of the tokens adorning the wrapper. The other, containing the same tokens, is printed in blue and without the token images.

   At this time, I am unsure of which wrapper was issued first. I would surmise that the more ornate red wrapper was issued first; then simplified. As the NY630BA tokens were issued August 23, 1980; we at least know the earliest date these rolls would have been issued. The question remains, does the blue wrapper denote a change in value and was issued when the cost of the tokens as raised to $1.25? In any case, it is currently thought (by me) the latest these rolls would have been issued is presumably 4/18/1982 when the NY630BD copper plated "List" tokens were released.

.....
NY630BA (roll) - "TBTA 20 TOKENS"
Issued August 23, 1980 through April 18, 1982?
(Red wrapper with token images)
Images are approximately actual size.
authors collection
NY630BA (roll) - "TBTA 20 TOKENS"
Issued August 23, 1980? through April 18, 1982?
(Blue wrapper without token images)
Images are approximately actual size.
authors collection

.

.
   Commencing with the next issue of token, the NY630BD copper plated "List"; we now see roll quantities of 9 and 19.

   The roll of 9 or 19 may seem like an odd quantity to roll coinage or tokens. Well, there was a reason for this: most daily commuters bought a roll of tokens on payday or on the first day of a work week, and most of those drivers made two one-way trips per day: one to work, another to come home; for the five business days per work week. That equals 10 trips through the toll booth per week or 20 trips per two week period. But, you also had to charge for the trip through the toll booth you were on
at that moment to buy those tokens. If the rolls were 10 and 20, that would equals 11 or 21 tokens, and that would mean coinage into the mix.

   So the rolls of 9 and 19 "and this trip" made things nice and simple for the commuter.


NY630BD (roll) - Major Crossings, "ROLL OF 19 TOKENS $34.00 INCLUDES THIS TRIP"
Issued commensurate with February 7, 1987 toll schedule until July 16, 1989.
Images are approximately actual size.
.

.

   The next Major Crossings roll issued chronologically is this example. Again, NY630BD remains the issued token. The wrapper is unbleached kraft paper with light blue ink. Notably, the numeral 9 is underlined (to differentiate it from an upside down 6):  9 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP    $21.00




v
NY630BD (roll) - Major Crossings, "ROLL OF 9 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" $21.00
Issued commensurate with January 1, 1993 toll schedule until March 23, 1996.
Images are approximately actual size.
authors collection


.
   As I stated previously, I had known of the existence of the roll of "9 tokens and this trip", but did not have one in my collection. This roll below needed a home too; so I purchased it as well. If my calculations are correct, this $30.00 roll is dated from the institution of March 24, 1996 toll schedule; whereas full toll rate was $3.50; and the discount token (with purchase of a roll) was $3.00: $30.00 ÷ 10 = $3.00 x 10% discount = $2.70. That would mean actual purchase price of the roll would be $27.00: 10 x $2.70 = $27.00.

   Wait. $2.70 per token??? That does not make sense as tokens were not discounted to $2.70. They were either discounted to $2.50 (from the $3.00 full rate in 1993 to 1996) or $3.00 (from the $3.50 full rate in 1996 to 1998). And it definitely would not be from full fare $3.50 to discounted $2.50, as that would entail a 28.57% discount, substantially more than the prepaid books of 20% discounted toll scrip!

   So, it led me to start recalculating. Why the difference in discount amount? It is known that the discount for ticket books increased from 10% to 20% circa 1985. While unconfirmed, it stands to reason the discount for a token roll purchase increased as well.

   And, we also know the price of the discount for a token roll varied depending on whether a regular token, a Staten Island resident or a Rockaway resident. So it is therefore concluded at this time the discounts for rolls varied (including fractions of a percent) depending on time frame and use.

   As I computed I noticed the discount varies based on the prices. If a straight 10% discount existed throughout all toll rates over history would require loose change. While $1.00 discounted 10% = 90 cents, a roll of 10 therefore would cost $9.00. Easy enough, a dollar change for a $10 dollar bill. But remember! There were 50 cent tokens, 75 cent tokens as well as $1.00 tokens.

   And as the tolls went up, to $1.25, then $1.50, and so on, the rate of discount was adjusted to keep the token value close enough to the nearest quarter, i.e.: $3.50 cash toll discounted 10% = $3.15. 3.15 x 10 = $31.50. Change would at least have to include two quarters and three one dollar bills, and possibly a five dollar bill if a motorist was handing over two twenties.

   So, there was need for the discount percentage to be adjusted, otherwise multiple coinage and bill denominations would come into play in both paying and handling change, and thereby slowing down the transaction at the booth.


   My calculations reflect that for this roll (9 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP) and amount ($30), the corresponding discount would either be 16.67% to reduce the amount from full fare $3.00 per trip to the discounted $2.50 (1993 to 1996); or 14.29% to get it from full fare $3.50 per trip to discounted $3.00 (1996 to 1998). So at a 14.29% discount, the roll of tokens cost an even $30.00.

   Therefore, I believe this roll / wrapper / value combination
to be the last roll style issued for sale and should have seen use until February 3, 1998; when token sales for the Major Crossings were officially discontinued. (Resident tokens remained for sale.)

   The tokens themselves would remain redeemable until September 30, 2017.


NY630BD (roll) - Major Crossings, "ROLL OF 9 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" $30.00 (shown approximately actual size)
Issued commensurate with March 24, 1996 toll schedule through May 18, 1998 (when token sales ceased)
Images are approximately actual size.
authors collection
.

.

Oh, those Rolls of 8!

   In an article from the New York Times, dated July 16, 1989; it mentions

"Some delays were reported yesterday at the Queens-Midtown Tunnel when more eastbound motorists than usual lined up to buy a roll of nine tokens for $17. The price of a roll rose to $21 today. Drivers were permitted to buy only one roll of tokens. They are good on the three major bridges and two tunnels, where the toll is now $2.50."

   However, the discovery of the roll of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" leaves us really stymied. To what purpose would 8 serve? One per day, an extra plus "and this trip"? Was it to keep the purchase price of the roll to the nearest nickel or dime? I just don't know at this time and neither does Ms. Hankins.


   Until finding that roll of 8; I had personally only encountered rolls of "9 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP". I would learn; by reviewing one of the order forms of the TBTA for December 1986, it is reflected that one could order rolls of 60 cent tokens for $11.40, and 1.30 tokens for $24.70 each. This equates to rolls of 19 tokens per roll, but this is an inter-governmental order and I didn't think much more about it.

   The packs of of 5 and 10 make sense for the Verrazano Narrows Bridge / Staten Island Resident. Tolls are only collected one way: westbound from Brooklyn. So they would only require 5 tokens per work week or 10 tokens for every two work weeks.

   
Ms. Hankins, the TBTA archivist; has not located any rolls or wrappers saved for posterity in their archives as yet, nor did she have knowledge other than the rolls of 19 (to which I immediately knew was not complete accounting). With my procurement of this roll of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP", she is now adding this data to the archives to reflect its existence and research is ongoing. The packs of 20 are mentioned in a New York Times article.

   Another purchasing variable concerning token sales that has come to light, is in the way of an letter dated January 13, 1992 from
Michael C. Ascher; President of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority in reply to a letter to the editor, published December 20, 1991 in the New York Times:

"To the Editor:
Customers at New York City's Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority facilities are not limited to purchasing a single roll of nine discounted tokens as Josh Stern writes (letter, Dec. 20).

At any of our facilities, you may buy for $42 two nine-pack rolls of tokens, one loose token and the toll passage you are making.
We began selling tokens in smaller rolls when a survey showed more customers would use them."


   So while I knew of the rolls of "9 TOKEN AND THIS TRIP" were prolific; when this roll of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" appeared on eBay, I knew I had to bring it home.


NY630BD (roll) - Major Crossings, "ROLL OF 8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" $21.00
Sold in groups of two with one loose token for $42.00
Issued commensurate with July 16, 1989 toll schedule until January 31, 1993.

Images are approximately actual size.
authors collection
.

.
   I have since added another roll of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" to the collection, this one marked for $25.00 (seen below). But I still had not been able to figure out what the rolls of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" were for. My math shows $21.00 ÷ 9 = $2.33 and $25.00 ÷ 9 = $2.77. Neither of those amounts are listed in the schedules, but the Class 2 tolls (for private auto with single axle trailer, three axle motorhome and three axles franchise bus) are close: $2.25 (1987) and $2.75 (1989) respectively. Close, but no cigar...

    However, adding an additional 10% discount to the amounts, will bring us to within a few hundredths of a cent to $2.10 and $2.50 respectively; which were the discounted token amounts with purchase of the rolls. But this is essentially a doubled discount. What class of vehicle or user would be entitled to a doubled discount? None according to the tariffs, and discount tokens were not offered to the Class 2 vehicles.

.
   Even as something as simple as that letter to the editor above and its reply raised questions: the letter to the editor was written in December 1991 and the reply January 1992. It mentions "nine-pack rolls of tokens". So where does the roll of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" factor in, as it too was issued during this time period: 1989-1993?

NY630BD (roll) - Major Crossings, "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" $25.00
Sold in groups of two with a loose token for $50.00

Issued commensurate from January 31, 1993 through March 24, 1996
Images are approximately actual size.
authors collection
..


   One of my faults, that I freely and openly admit to, is my obsessing over problems. I had to know what these rolls of "8 TOKEN AND THIS TRIP" were used for, and I kept looking on the web. Ironically, President Ascher's letter to the editor of the New York Times, January 30, 1992 kept coming up, so I read it over and over again.


   So reluctantly, I decided to do even more math. (For the record, I hate math. I'm better at science and even better as a historian!) On a whim, I worked out the token value with the sales breakdown above: two rolls of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" (9 trips total x 2 = 18); plus one loose token and the one trip being taken at the time of purchase: 18 + 1 + 1 = 20 trips for $42.00.

   $42.00 
÷ 20 trips = $2.10. Now there is a number I can live with! The $2.10 token value was precisely commensurate with the $2.50 full cash fare collected July 16, 1989 through January 31, 1993!

   To test this equation, I tried the same math with the $25 roll of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP": $25.00 x 2 = $50.00
.÷ 20 trips = $2.50 per token! Which is of course is exactly the discounted token amount for January 31, 1993 through March 24, 1996.

   Attempting this equation with the rolls of "9 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" does not work.

   So it my conclusion at this time that while the "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" rolls could be sold singly (for $21.00), their intended purpose was to be sold two at a time with one loose token and the trip at that time for $42.00. Let us hope this can be confirmed by some document in the TBTA archives!

   Another minor observation made from the comparison of the roll of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" and the roll of "9 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP"; the rolls are of the same length (wrappers are of the same width), but the crimp on one end of "8 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" is deeper than on the "9 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP"; thereby taking up the space of the ninth token.


.



Rolls for "Minor Crossings"


   As with the Major Crossings, we know of rolls for the Minor Crossings as well.

   The "11 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" for the Minor Crossings roll counterpart to the Major Crossings roll above. The images were located on the web, as part of a completed auction value aggregating service from a listing some time ago.


   But again, here we have a roll with a weird quantity amount: "11 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP", for a total of twelve trips. This quantity also does not configure to the 5 and 10 trip per commuter week. And again we find ourselves asking: why?  But, when we do the math, the $10.00 roll amount divided by 12 trips = .833 cents per token. This conforms to the tariffs for minor crossings perfectly for the time range listed in the tariffs.
NY630BC (roll) - Minor Crossings, "ROLL OF 11 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP" $10.00
Issued commensurate with July 16, 1989 toll schedule until January 31, 1993.
Images are approximately actual size.
.

.
   We also now bear witness to a roll of 20 TOKENS INCLUDES THIS TRIP for $14.00. And, with a little time between purchases (about 2 months) we now know there are currently two distinct varieties of rolls known.

   Both are unbleached kraft paper with red ink; however, one roll which (we will call Type 1); has the M logo with splayed legs (which appears visually to be an upside down W).

   The other (which will be referred to here as Type 2) has an simple straight legged M. Also the line spacing between MARINE / HENRY HUDSON / CROSSBAY is wider on the Type 1 than on the Type 2, and the font not as large or bold.

   At this time it is not known which type preceded the other or if it was due to the result of different printing contracts.

Type 1Type 2
NY630BC (roll - Type 1) - Minor Crossings, "ROLL OF 20 TOKENS INCLUDES THIS TRIP" $14.00
Issued commensurate with February 7, 1987 through July 15, 1989 toll schedule.
Images are approximately actual size.
.                        .     
.

splayed leg "M"
or upside down "W"
straight leg "M"
NY630BC (roll - Type 2) - Minor Crossings, "ROLL OF 20 TOKENS INCLUDES THIS TRIP" $14.00
Issued commensurate with February 7, 1987 through July 15, 1989 toll schedule.
Images are approximately actual size.


.


.

   This next chart is a compilation of known token rolls and packs and IS NOT complete. New roll types will be added as they are discovered and some information may change as new data arrives. For the most part, the data contained is either empirical from examples in my collection ( ), images on the web ( ), from toll receipts ( Θ ) or mentioned in newspaper articles ( ).

.
packaging
& quantity - offer 

token description 
A/C #

(notes / remarks)
discounted purchase amount marked on the roll
[full cash fare in brackets] (value of token in parenthesis and includes the free trip or free token)
date(s) of use.
6/1976 
5/18/1980
6/1976 
5/18/1980
5/19/1980 
4/18/1982
4/19/1982 
1/2/1984
4/19/1982 
1/2/1984
1/3/1984 
12/31/1985
1/1/1986 
7/15/1989
7/16/1989 
1/30/1993
1/31/1993
 3/23/1996
3/24/1996 to
2/3/1998 *
.
Rolls - Major Crossings
8 TOKENS
AND THIS TRIP

Major Crossings
copper "List" 
NY630BD
While they could have figuratively been sold individually, this would not accord the driver
the full discount at $2.10 and $2.50 respectively from the full cash toll of $2.50 and $3.00, as single roll sales calculate to $2.33 per token for the $21.00 roll and $2.77 per token for the $25.00 roll.

Therefore it is believed that these roll quantities were packaged and intended to be sold in groups of two, with a single loose token and the trip being taken at the time of purchase;
for a total of 20 trips purchased, as stated in TBTA President Michael C. Ascher's letter to the editor, New York Times,
January 13, 1992.
$21
(x2 rolls +1 loose)
[2.50] (2.10)
7/16/1989 to 1/30/1993
$25 
(x2 rolls +1 loose)
[3.00] (2.50)
1/31/1993 to
3/24/1996


9 TOKENS AND THIS TRIP

Major Crossings
copper "List" 
NY630BD
$17
[2.00] (1.70)
2/7/1987 to
7/15/1989
$21
[2.50] (2.10)
7/16/1989 to 1/30/1993
$25 
[3.00] (2.50)
1/31/1993 to 3/23/1996
$30  
[3.50] (3.00)
3/24/1996 to 2/3/1998

10 and this trip

Major Crossings
copper "List" 
NY630BD
.




.
$21
[2.50] (2.10)
7/16/1989 to
1/30/1993

19

Major Crossings

(inter-governmental)
$24.70
[1.75] (1.30)
1986

19 TOKENS
INCLUDES THIS TRIP

Major Crossings
copper "List" 
NY630BD

$34  Θ
[2.50] (1.70)
2/7/1987 to
7/15/1989

19 includes this trip

Major Crossings
w/ Staten Island Discount

copper "List"
NY630BD
$32  Θ
[2.50] (1.60)
2/7/1987 to
7/15/1989

20

Major Crossings
copper "List"
NY630BD
$34

7/16/1989 - 1/30/1993

20 including 1 free trip

Major Crossings
copper "List" 
NY630BD
$22
[1.25] (1.10)
from 4/19/1982 to ?
(may be the next roll below)

TBTA 20 TOKENS
and free token

brass 'M100
NY630BA
red wrapper
(the significance of the red vs. blue
wrapper seen below is not yet known)

$20
[1.00] (.952)
8/23/1980 - 4/18/1982

TBTA 20 TOKENS
and free token

brass 'M100' 
NY630BA

blue wrapper
(the significance of the blue vs. red wrapper
seen above is not yet known)
$20
[1.00] (.952)
8/23/1980 - 4/18/1982

21 and free token

Major Crossings
brass 'M100' 
NY630BA
$22
[1.00] (.95)
? to 4/19/1982
(replaced with above 20 copper "List" NY630BD token above)

Rolls - Minor Crossings
11 TOKENS
AND THIS TRIP

Minor Crossings

copper "List" 
NY630BC


$10
[1.25] (.833)
7/16/1989 - 1/30/1993
$11 
[1.50] (.833)
1/30/1993 -
3/24/1996

12

Minor Crossings

copper "List" 
NY630BC
$14

7/16/1989 - 1/30/1993

19

Minor Crossings

(inter-governmental)
$11.40
[1.00] (.60)
1986

TBTA  20 TOKENS 
includes this trip

Minor Crossings
copper "List" 
NY630BC

.



.
Two Types Known
$14  
[1.00] (.666)
2/7/1987 to 7/15/1989

.
Packs - Residents Only
Pack of 5 - Staten Island Residents Only
brass "Resident" - NY632D
(unknown if "4 and this trip" or 5 actual tokens)


1998 to 9/30/2017

Pack of 10 - Staten Island Residents Only
brass "Resident" - NY632D
(unknown if "9 and this trip" or 10 actual tokens)


1998 to 9/30/2017

Pack of ? - Rockaway Residents Only
brass "Resident" - NY631Y

1998 to 4/30/2017

Packs
Pack of 20 - .50 + 1 free w/ purchase
brass plated "Wheel" - NY630AU
$10  Θ
[.50] (.42)
starting 6/1976

Pack of 20 - .75 + 1 free w/ purchase
copper plated "Wheel" - NY630AV
$15  Θ
[.75] (.71)
starting 6/1976

Pack of 20 - 1.00 + 1 free w/ purchase
white metal plated "Wheel" - NY630AW
$20  Θ
[1.00] (.95)
starting 6/1976

Pack of 20
Major Crossings
$22
[1.10]
4/21/1982
$30
[1.75] (1.40)
1/1/1986- 2/6/1987
$34
[2.00] (1.60)
2/7/1987 - 7/16/1989

Footnotes:
Mail orders of tokens ended 5/14/1982
Major Crossing Token sales ended 2/3/1998
Rockaway and Staten Island Resident Tokens remained for sale only to the respective residents until 4/30 and 9/30/2017
All token redemption ended 9/30/2017
= in authors collection
 = visually confirmed to exist (internet auction or archives)
Θ = listed on toll receipts
₦ = mentioned in newspaper
.

.
Mail Order
.
   Other than purchasing them at the toll booths, token rolls were also available by mail.
To be mailed; the token rolls, due to weight and non-machinability in postal sorting machines; a roll would have either have to have been sent first class mail with a non-machinable surcharge added to the base postage; or parcel post, which is processed at a much slower rate due to irregular sizes & weights than first class.

   No mention is made of additional shipping charges for the token rolls by mail; so we conclude the TBTA absorbed those postage costs and incurred a reduced margin of revenue. Ms. Hankins suggested the "and this trip" was not redeemed through a mail order, so this offset the postage costs incurred by the TBTA.

   
It is mentioned in at least one New York Times article dated April 20, 1982 that:

"Tokens for any of the bridges or tunnels can be purchased at tollbooths or at the authorities administration building on Randall's Island. No credit cards or checks will be accepted. Tokens can also be purchased by mail by sending a check or money order to the Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority, Randall's Island, New York, NY 10035."

"A packet  of 20 tokens costs $22.00" reducing the trip cost of each trip to $1.10."
.
   As the time this was published (the day after the toll fare raise of April 19), the full fare for a passenger automobile (with no trailer) was $1.25. $1.25 reduced to $1.10 works out to a 12% discount.

   The use of the word "packet" raised a potential question as well. A packet infers a small enclosed envelope: (the NYCTA offered ten tokens in a clear plastic bag approximately 2 1/2" x 2 1/2" and called a "TimeSaver Pak". But a roll is significantly different from a packet. When someone asks for a packet of coins from a bank, we will be met with a blank stare. Ask for a roll and there are no questions.

   The use of a packet, being flatter and more flexible; would allow it to be processed via automated sorting machines and therefore shipped expeditiously via first class.

  
With the discovery of the June 1976 New York Times article seen at the beginning of this chapter, we now have confirmation of the use of plastic bags for packaging 20 tokens. If anyone out there has an actual token pack (as opposed to a roll) for the TBTA tokens, send an image and we could put this matter to rest.

   While the TBTA order forms for the public as seen in the Internal Documents & Reference Materials chapter later in this website clearly show scrip ticket books available by mail, these forms do not list tokens (with the exception of the inter-governmental order).

   But, we have confirmation via Ms. Hankins that the TBTA did in fact offer tokens by mail. Because such practice was discontinued in 1982! Included in the minutes of a meeting taking place of May 14, 1982 (not 4 weeks after the New York Time article above), the following is recorded:


.

.
Individual Full Fare Token Sales:
.
   If my memory serves me correctly, I also distinctly recall toll collectors selling "the List" tokens individually for full price.

   If your journey was to be round trip and the toll rate was $3.50 at the crossing at that time, you could pull up to the manned full service / receipts toll booth, hand the toll collector $7.00 and request a token as change for the return trip.

   This way; on your return trip you could save a little time, by avoiding the manned toll lanes and use the exact change lanes. With token in hand, you approached the collection basket at a slow roll in your car, rolled down your window and flung your token into the basket without actually stopping and gunned the accelerator.

.

.
Overall Design Characteristics of the Token Issues:
.
   There are four major styles of TBTA token issues: "the Wheel", "the Big M", "the List" and "the Resident". These are informal names that I have assigned to them to identify and discuss them easier.

   The "Wheel" design is the first issue, and released in June 29, 1976. They are seen in three denominations: 50 (brass plated), 75 (copper plated) and 100
(white metal plated) with several subtypes of the 75 cent token being known: thin border rim, thick border rim, small letter, large letter and a solid brass. Some of these variants may not be intentional design changes (with the exception of the solid brass issue), but a result of contracting with different manufacturers over time.

   They all carry the splayed leg '
M' logo of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. As this logo was adopted for use in 1968, the tokens were logically issued after this date. While the Atwood Coffee catalog attributes the earliest issue date as 1975, the newspaper article and internal information from the TBTA confirms June 29, 1976 as the first time the tokens were released for circulation to the public. Therefore, the date listed in the Atwood Coffee may be the manufacturing date. The manufacturer is unknown at this time.    

   There are several common factors among all four series of TBTA tokens:
 
 
1) all TBTA tokens are medallion orientation;  
   The lettering on all tokens of all four issues is of medallion orientation, that being if your hold the token with your fingers at the 12 and 6 o' clock positions (vertical axis), and turn the token; the writing on both sides remains readable. A coin orientation means if you hold the token (or coin) with your fingers at the 9 and 3 o'clock positions (horizontal axis), and turn the coin or token over, both sides remains readable; (but when flipped at 12 and 6 o'clock, one side is upside down).  

2) all known tokens EXCEPT the NY632D (Staten Island Resident), have a reeded edge (that is, grooved like a US dime or quarter, not smooth like a penny or nickel);
      whereas the NY632D (Staten Island Resident) has a smooth rolled edge;  

3) all known tokens have a solid design, that is with no cut outs or punch outs in the design (like the first designs of the NYC Subway tokens with Y cut out);

4) all tokens are lightly magnetic EXCEPT NYC630BK ( M / 75 / TBTA ) and NY630BAa ( M / 100 ).
.
   Tokens illustrated below are shown larger than actual size (unless otherwise noted) for detail but are scaled the same for size comparison.

   Token types known are thus:

First Issue - "the Wheel"
issued 1976 - 1982 (?)

   Both sides (obverse and reverse) of the tokens have same relief (raised) design: M / 50 / TBTA or  M / 75 / TBTA or  M / 100 / TBTA.


Atwood Coffee
number
obverse printing reverse printing issue
date
size (diameter)
weight (g) 1
material edge notes obverse reverse
NY630AU M 
50
TBTA
 M 
50
TBTA
June 1976 25mm

6.2 g
brass plated 
red brass? 
reeded thin border rim,
3.5mm TBTA

Roger Williams Mint

for use at Cross Bay, Marine Parkway and Henry Hudson Bridges
same as obverse
NY630AV M 
75
TBTA
M 
75
TBTA
June 1976 26mm

6.8 g
copper plated reeded thin border rim,
3.5mm TBTA

Roger Williams Mint

for use at Triborough, Bronx Whitestone, Throgs Neck Bridges and Brooklyn Battery, Queens Midtown Tunnels.
same as obverse
NY630AW M 
100
TBTA
M 
100
TBTA
June 1976 27mm

8.2 g
white metal
plated
reeded thin border rim,
4mm TBTA
Roger Williams Mint

for use at Verrazano Narrows Bridge.
same as obverse
NY630AZ v1 M 
75
TBTA
M 
75
TBTA
1979 29mm

9.0 g
copper plated reeded thick border rim,
4mm TBTA
same as obverse
NY630AZ v2 M 
75
TBTA
M 
75
TBTA
1979 29mm

8.7 g
copper plated reeded thick border rim,
thick M
3.5mm TBTA
same as obverse
NY630BK M 
75
TBTA
M 
75
TBTA
ca. 1976 26mm

8.3 g
brass reeded thin border rim,
4mm TBTA
non-magnetic
same as obverse
all tokens above: authors collection
.
   An example of NY630AU in my collection, as well as others seen; appears to be copper or red brass, as it is reddish brown in color and not yellow as brass tokens in this issue are.

   It is postulated, that the different sized tokens for each denomination were designed in this manner for automatic sorting, by passing through progressively larger sorting screens. This aided in the use of automatic sorting and rolling machines. The smallest token (50) would drop first, followed by the next largest, the 75; and finally the 100.
   

   Most of the TBTA tokens above are commonly seen in heavily circulated conditions and are available for purchase via online auction or websites.
Minimally circulated token carry a premium. Unless gold plated, stamped Tiffany & Co and made into cuff links (I'm being facetious), you should not expect to nor should you pay more than a few dollars for each, price commensurate on condition.



Second Issue - "the Big M"
8/23/1980 - ?

   The second issue of TBTA tokens, of which only one denomination is known, the dollar (100). The Atwood Coffee catalog lists an issue date of 1980, and fortunately, the New York Times mentions the release:



   While not stated in the article, this token issue features a new design. On the obverse: the TBTA seal (bridge over tunnel over TBTA letters):

.
 
.
   and a large 
M over the large denomination 100 on the reverse, hence the nickname: the "Big M".  

   It is also with this series that a striped overprinting has first been witnessed, but which is
not listed in the Atwood-Coffee Catalog. The method used in application of the stripes is currently unknown: solvent based spray, anodized or electrostatically applied and heat cured powdercoat? Due to the thin light coating of the stripes, I lean towards a solvent based application for this issue, but this is unconfirmed.

   An interesting discovery is that the issue with black stripes is significantly more magnetic than other tokens from other issues; and the regular issue token (without stripes) of this issue which is not magnetic at all.

   By significantly more magnetic, I mean it really grabs my magnetic screwdriver, whereas the other slightly magnetic issues only lightly attract the tip of the screwdriver. And the pull exerted on my magnet increases the closer it comes to the stripes, as opposed to being a uniform pull around the entire token.

  
It is without any doubt, those stripes themselves have magnetic properties.


Atwood Coffee number obverse printing reverse printing issue date size (diameter)
weight (g)
material edge overprint notes obverse reverse
NY630BAa TBTA seal M
100
August 23, 1980
29mm

8.6 g
brass  reeded no regular issue
non-magnetic
NY630BAb
(unlisted)
TBTA seal M
100
1983? 29mm

8.6 g
brass 
reeded yes two parallel 4 mm black stripes
on reverse only
stripes significantly magnetic

(Staten Island resident or anti-counterfeiting?)
all tokens above: authors collection
.
   However a New York Times article 
dated August 17, 1984;"Plague of Pesos Afflicts Token Machines in City"  which publicized the disparaging use of slugs and counterfeits in New York City's token machines:

"The Mexican peso, a coin worth half a cent, has become a $132,000-a-year problem for the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. The toll machines on the authority's bridges cannot distinguish between the $1.50 tokens they collect and the silver-colored peso. The use of pesos started soon after a new token was introduced with a fare increase in April 1982, authority officials said. Now, about 7,300 pesos are collected from fare machines each month - the equivalent of $11,000 a month in tolls. In an effort to combat the pesos, the authority plans to spend at least $11,600 a month to lease machines designed to distinguish its tokens from slugs, counterfeits and foreign coins."

"The peso, for example, is made from nickel and a sliver of silver, while the authority's tokens are solid brass."

   This article creates a question however: no tokens are known to be marked $1.50. Unless the issue with two black stripes is the $1.50 issue? The unabridged article may be read here (pages A1 and B2): New York Time Digital Archives

   It is also possible that the token with two stripes was created and used to differentiate between regular issue tokens and those that could be purchased by only by Staten Island residents.

   As can be read in the June 23, 1983 issue of the New York Times; New York Governor Mario Cuomo signed legislation the previous day granting residents of Staten Island a 25 cent discount on their toll on the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. This discount was because they had to pay tolls to enter the borough from either New Jersey or Brooklyn, so those residents that worked out of Staten Island, carried an additional financial burden in residing in Staten Island. This legislation and discounted token offered them some minor financial relief, and was only available to those residing in Staten Island. The New York Times article mentions a sticker that had to be applied to their vehicle that entitled them to purchase a pack of 20 special $1 tokens:


"Governor Cuomo today signed legislation giving Staten Islanders a special 25-cent discount on the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge toll....

Under the law, residents of Staten Island may get stickers on their cars that will entitle them to buy packages of 20 special $1 tokens. The program is expected to begin by fall. The regular fare in each direction is $1.25."


   The full article can be read here (pages A1 and B6): New York Times Digital Archives. And fortunately, we have an image of that sticker:



   It is believed but unconfirmed; that the striped variety of tokens are those special tokens, so
the question now remains: whether the striped magnetic token was for differentiating between regular and Staten Island Resident issues or it was an anti-counterfeiting measure?

   I did inquire of this in my initial email to Ms. Hankins, who in turn passed along the inquiry to both the present and the retired Directors of Revenue Operations with their responses (and my comments in parenthesis):

“The tokens were brass tokens with metallic stripes which were used to prevent counterfeiting of tokens. The exterior of the tokens were copper plated, but sometimes the copper plate wore off and exposed the stripes.
(They were not copper plated - none of the M100 tokens have ever shown evidence or remains of copper plating. I personally think he may be referring the later issue of tokens with silver stripes as seen in the next series. PMG)

"The retired Director of Revenue Operations also thinks, but is not quite certain, the black stripes occurred on the M-100 token from metal oxidation which caused that type of steel to turn black."

.
   With this; we have unanswered questions pertaining to this issue that remain to be answered.

   In terms of collectability, both the regular issue and the striped variety of this issue are seldom seen, with the striped token being far more rare. The regular issue in average circulated issue is worth $5-10, and the striped issue $15 or more.



 Third Issue - "the List"
1982 - February 3, 1998


   The third issue tokens removed the numerical denomination from the reverse of the token and replaced it with a list of crossings that that token could be used at. There are two sizes: 25mm for the Minor Crossings (Marine, Henry Hudson, Cross Bay) and 29mm for the Major Crossings: (Triborough, Bronx Whitestone, Verrazano Narrows, Brooklyn Battery, Queens Midtown, Throgs Neck).

   Removing the denomination from the token makes logical sense as by this time, the tolls were now being raised on a frequent basis. By removing the denomination, the same token could be sold, regardless of the toll fare in the future, in similar concept to the present US Postal Service "Forever" stamp. Postage can be raised, but the USPS will not have to print new stamps with a different denomination on them, thereby saving money.
   

   And, by having two sizes; the TBTA could accommodate the cost differential between tokens of the major crossings (Triborough Bridge, Bronx Whitestone Bridge, Verrazano Narrows Bridge, Brooklyn Battery Tunnel, Queens Midtown Tunnel, Throgs Neck Bridge), and those of the minor crossings (Marine Parkway Bridge, Henry Hudson Parkway Bridge and the Cross Bay Boulevard Bridge) which cost a lower fare.


   The obverse retains the TBTA seal. The large "Major Crossing" issue is now confirmed to have been struck by Roger Williams Mint. It is believed the smaller "Minor Crossing" issue was also, but this is unconfirmed.

White Metal Stripe 

   We also see a variety of these tokens
with a stripe, this time a single 5 millimeter white metal stripe.

   While at first, I thought the stripe was applied over the copper plate, and was to denote Rockaway and Staten Island Resident issues.

   But that "freak" token I have, got me thinking.
The Atwood Coffee defines this issue as copper plated. I would conclude the underlying token material is brass with copper plating, and the brass is showing through as a result of wear. Nothing surprising there, but:

   a) Note how the white metal stripe is almost completely worn off from the sunken areas of the obverse (TBTA seal / copper plated side) with remnants of the stripe on the raised rim and letters. Thinking logically would reflect that the stripe would be better protected in the sunken areas and would remain, with the raised areas more prone to rubbing & wear. Yet the opposite has happened.

   b) In contrast to this, the stripe is sharp and defined on the reverse (list of crossings / brass) side in both raised and sunken areas.

.

   c) Logic would also dictate the plating on both sides be evenly wear to almost the same degree. It would also be logical to conclude that if the copper plating wore off, so would have the white metal stripe. Does the white metal stripe adhere better to brass than copper?



NY630BD - copper obverse and brass reverse?
authors collection
.

.
   So this got me thinking - what if the white stripe was under the copper, and it was the copper plating itself that was wearing off? After finally coming to terms with myself in sacrificing a spare NY630BC (Minor Crossings) token, I conducted a little experiment.

   Following online instructions for removing copper plate with simple household chemicals, I commenced in doing so: one part 3% Hydrogen Peroxide, two parts White Vinegar (Acetic Acid). After 15 minutes the solution started to very lightly form bubbles on the token. After an hour, the solution took on a light blue tint and the copper plate began to dissolve revealing the white metal stripe and the brass token:

prior to soaking in solution after 15 minutes in one part 3% Hydrogen Peroxide /
two parts White Vinegar - bubbles!
.
.
.
after 6 hours (and one change of solution)    after 16 hours (and two more changes of solution)


   I changed the solution three times over 16 hours. The end result is clear and revealed that the white metal stripe is embedded into the brass stock, and not applied over the copper plate as I originally thought!
Therefore a strip of white metal is believed to have been inlaid at the time of rolling the brass stock, and prior to die punching the blank planchets.

   When I run my finger over the token, I can even feel a joint or transition between the white metal and the brass, where the white metal stripe is higher than the brass. Breaking out my trusty Herter micrometer (pre-WWII Germany), the thickness of the token at the rim is .069", while the overall thickness on the white metal strip at the rim is .072". This means that the combined thickness of the white metal strip is .003" inches thicker than the token. This equates to .0015" higher per side.

   And the copper plating? Just 5 ten thousandths of an inch at its thinnest (on top of the white metal stripe). This explains why the token wears through first at the stripe on the rim and why the stripe appears before the copper plate is worn off.



all dimensions taken at rim of Minor Crossings NY630BC token

   As for the composition of the white metal, it appears to be a lightly magnetic stainless steel (ferritic, not austenitic), and as it did not etch and remained polished with a high luster throughout the duration of the acid bath.

   So my initial conclusions previously published here were incorrect: a) the stripe was not applied over the copper plate, and therefore b) the stripe could NOT used to identify discount Resident issues, as it would be hidden under the copper plate. Therefore, it is simply an anti-counterfeiting device.

   And yes; while this is all highly technical for just the average collector, this experiment bears out that the white metal stripe variety of tokens aren't a variety at all, just a more worn example of the tokens.

   If one watches the online auction listings closely, you will note many tokens have the the metallic stripe in varying degrees of visibility. This is all due to handling. As the copper plating wore off, more and more of the white metal stripe showing through and visible, (and not the other way around with the stripe wearing off).

   Remember, a lot of these tokens were used in automated toll booths with catch baskets; so regular use of said token included being roughly handled, not to mention the TBTA's automated counting and rolling machines.


   This experiment also explains the existence of that half copper / half brass token in my collection. However it occurred, the copper plate was removed from one side of the token revealing the white metal stripe and the brass.

   As a result of this experiment, we can now conclude that all the "List" tokens have that white metal stripe embedded, therefore eliminating the need for a variety listing in Atwood Coffee or here. Therefore, I have removed the stripe variety NY630BCb and NYC630BDb from the table below.

Atwood Coffee
number
obverse printing reverse printing issue
date
size (diameter)
weight (g)
material edge overprint notes obverse reverse
NY 630 BC TBTA seal MARINE
HENRY HUDSON
CROSS BAY

M
1980 25mm

6.3 g
copper plated reeded no minor crossing
regular issue
NY 630 BD TBTA seal TRIBOROUGH
BRONX WHITESTONE

VERRAZANO NARROWS
BROOKLYN BATTERY

QUEENS MIDTOWN

THROGS NECK

M
1982 29mm

8.2 g
copper plated reeded no major crossing
regular issue

minted by Roger Williams
qty minted: 7,500,000
all tokens above: authors collection
.
Both issues extremely common.

.

.

.



 Fourth Issue - "the Residents"
1994 - 2015(?)

   As stated, the fourth issue of tokens is believed to have been minted to replace the striped tokens, but to have been used along side the general issues tokens of the Third Issue.

   The TBTA issued this series of tokens in 1994, which are now specially minted in relief (raised) markings on the reverse: ROCKAWAY RESIDENT
M around the circumference of the rim, with CROSSBAY AND MARINE PARKWAY in the center, or STATEN ISLAND RESIDENT M around the circumference of the rim, and VERRAZANO NARROWS BRIDGE in the center. The obverse still carries the TBTA Seal in relief.    

   As for cataloging, these two token issues are now listed in the borough specific listings of the Atwood Coffee: Queens - NY631 Queens and Staten Island - NY632, as opposed to all the previous types all listed under New York City - NY630.
   

   It is also known that the Rockaway Resident tokens could only be purchased at Cross Bay Bridge and Marine Parkway Bridge toll booths; likewise the Staten Island Resident tokens only available at the Verrazano Narrows Bridge toll booths and could only be purchased by those residents with the proper pass or sticker in the car window.

   After my initial email, I received a reply from Gibson Olpp; marketing manager for Osborne Coin (successor to Roger Williams Mint).

Made in 1993 for Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority Tokens

5,254,000 -  1.095” Staten Island Token

4,246,300 -  0.895” Rockaway Resident Token

That is as far back as the records go.

.
   So, a little more information never hurts. But, as with most research;
one question answered finds one more needs to be asked: Roger Williams Mint lists manufacturing size in SAE (inches) - Atwood Coffee has them in millimeters.

   From what I am able to gather by reviewing the toll schedules, and following confirmation from Ms. Hankins; the "Resident" tokens were sold and accepted long after the regular issue "List" token were removed from circulation. I, in error; had been under the conclusion all token sales ceased February 3, 1998;, but again, I was incorrect.

   The resident tokens remained for sale to said residents because of the specific language as stated in the New York State statute, which provided those residents of Staten Island and Rockaway a discounted token. After the physical tokens stopped being accepted in 2017, said residents were eligible for "e-Tokens" as so called in the schedules. As they are still called "tokens", the letter of the law is upheld.

   These last two token issues were finally withdrawn from use; first at Cross Bay and Marine Parkway Bridges on April 30, 2017; and by September 30, 2017 at the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. 



Atwood Coffee number obverse printing reverse printing issue date size (diameter)
weight (g)
material edge overprint notes obverse reverse
NY 631 Y TBTA seal ROCKAWAY RESIDENT  M

CROSSBAY AND MARINE PARKWAY BRIDGES
1994 0.895"
(23mm +/-)

6.0 g
brass plated reeded no minor crossing

minted by: Roger Williams
qty minted: 4,246,300
NY 632 D TBTA seal STATEN ISLAND RESIDENT M

VERRAZANO NARROWS BRIDGE
1994 1.095"
(28mm +/-)

8.9 g
brass plated smooth no major crossing

minted by Roger Williams
qty minted: 5,254,000
all tokens above: authors collection
.
Footnotes:
1 = weights by author via OHaus triplebeam Series 700
.

.
   In regards to collectability, the Resident Tokens are more readily seen in much better conditions than that of their previous issue counterparts, as they only issued for approximately 4 years and despite having been circulated for 13 years. However they are a little scarcer in my opinion. Higher grade examples should not cost you more than $10 each.
.

.
Triborough Bridge 50th Anniversary Commemorative Issue

   While not a true fiscal issue used for paying a toll, George S. Cuhaj offered the following item for inclusion into the topic.

   It is a Commemorative Medallion issued for the 50th Anniversary of the Triborough Bridge. Its dimensions are identical with that of the toll issues, but this token is gilt plated (gold). From references it was only issued to employees of the Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority. It was issued in the plastic protective case with spacer ring just as you see..


Triborough Bridge 50th Anniversary Commemorative Medallion - 1986
gilt plated, in protective case,
issued to employees
Roger Williams Mint
(quantity minted unknown, but under 10,000)
collection of George S. Cuhaj
..

.


The End of the Line for the Tokens

   Testing of the E-ZPass RFID toll collection system by the Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority began in 1991, as seen in the Staten Island Advance article dated February 26, 1991.

   In just seven short years, as seen in the New York Times, token sales ended on February 3, 1998 with the widespread use of E-ZPass (radio frequency transmitter tag) being instituted. The transcribed article reads as follows:


The bridge and tunnel token is one step closer to becoming a collector's item.

In the latest nod to the ubiquity of the E-Z Pass, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority on Sunday stopped selling tokens at six of its nine tunnels and bridges in New York City.

The move was not exactly a surprise. Last year, the M.T.A. stopped selling the tokens in bulk at those six crossings -- leaving the $7 round-trip transaction as the only one for which motorists could buy tokens. Four months ago, the authority removed its tokens-only baskets from its tollbooths. And last month, the authority reported that only 2 percent of the estimated 730,000 vehicles that crossed its bridges and tunnels daily used tokens.

Now, anyone who wants to buy a token can do so only at three crossings: on the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, where the toll is collected in only one direction, Staten Island residents -- and no one else -- can buy a package of tokens worth 5 or 10 round-trips. Token packages will also be sold for the Cross Bay and Marine Parkway Bridges, in the Rockaways, which are less expensive than the other crossings and use a smaller-sized token.

Those who still have tokens can still use them at any of the crossings. Frank Pascual, a spokesman for M.T.A. Bridges and Tunnels, said, ''We'll take them as long as you have them.'

The authority introduced the E-Z Pass in 1995, saying that it would shave precious minutes off rush-hour commuting time and eliminate the hassle of having to fumble for coins and bills to pay the toll. 

The small E-Z Pass transponders are mounted on windshields and are read electronically at toll gates that automatically deduct the fares from customers' accounts.

Despite some initial missteps, the E-Z Pass proved to be wildly popular. In 1997, the M.T.A. projected that 170,000 transponders would be installed by year's end. The actual figure turned out to be 1.2 million, Mr. Pascual said.


   Reading the article a little more carefully, I have realized that token sales stopped at 6 of 9 crossings, but remained on sale for Staten Island Residents (Verrazano Narrows Bridge) as well as the Rockaway Residents (Cross Bay and Marine Parkway Bridges).

   These tokens are shown for sale as late as the 2015 toll schedule in the pdf file. The exact date of when sales of these tokens ceased is not yet known. It is therefore not known if sales stopped at the cessation of acceptance at the dates below or some time before.

   Eventually, acceptance of the remaining tokens was phased out and ceased as well. This took place on two separate dates, those being: first at Cross Bay and Marine Parkway Bridges on April 30, 2017; and by September 30, 2017 at the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. 

   All toll booths at all crossings have since been removed, and toll collection automated to E-ZPass and Tolls By Mail. The full service / receipts / toll collectors are gone. The exact change lanes with their white plastic catch baskets and moving arms are gone. 

   Have no fear! Those people that still hold tokens can exchange tokens (but why would you?!?!) through a token refund kit from MTA Bridges & Tunnels. 

   On October 1, 2019; I actually called the phone number on the MTA Bridges & Tunnels website for the token refund kit. The nice lady who answered the telephone took my information and asked how many tokens I would be sending in. I told her none, and there was a pregnant pause on the line. I then explained I was a TBTA toll token collector and only wanted the refund kit as part of my token collection. She was quite amused and said that I was the first one that she ever knew to ever do that!

MTA Bridges & Tunnels - Token Refund Kit
authors collection
.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

.
Toll Receipts

   Undoubtedly, the most "disposable" of the memorabilia: the toll receipt. If I could tell you how many were thrown away, and how many I found under the seat of my grandfathers car.  

   I will not hide the fact that I had an affection for traveling, beginning as a young child. And encouraging this, my father would ask for maps, receipts and other goodies at every toll booth during trips; whether it was just across the bridge or down to Florida. I had a pile of them in a box under the seat of the family van. Verrazano, Goethals, New Jersey Turnpike, Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel, you name it. All the way down the East Coast from Brooklyn, New York to Miami Beach, Florida, where my grandparents lived; and New York State Thruway, Southern State Parkway, Palisades Parkway, Garden State Parkway, and the New Jersey Turnpike.

   But, like the proverbial box of baseball cards or comic books, they were disposed of during a cleaning session at some point. Mine are probably all decayed under the Fountain Avenue landfill by now. But I have managed to accumulate a few since then.

November 13, 1969 (incorrect)
Verrazano Narrows Bridge - $20.00 token sale
TBTA did not offer tokens until 1976, and packaged in those amounts:
twenty .50 for $10, twenty .75 for $15.00 or twenty 1.00 for $20.00
.
Therefore I postulate the receipt was issued between June 1976 and 1980,
date of the first toll increase after those first token packs were offered.

authors collection
.

.
unknown date
Verrazano Narrows Bridge - $20.00 
authors collection
copyright
2019
Philip M. Goldstein
ca. 1989 - $2.00
This one is particularly interesting as the toll collector used
an actual ticket punch to mark the sale.
authors collection
.

.
August 8, 1976-1980
Crossbay Parkway Bridge - .50
collection of George S. Cuhaj
.

.
May 10, 1995
Marine Parkway Bridge - $1.50
authors collection
May 12, 1995
Marine Parkway Bridge - $1.50
authors collection
.

.
August 5, 1978?
Whitestone Bridge - .75
collection of George S. Cuhaj
August 13, 1978
Bronx Whitestone Bridge - $1.00
collection of George S. Cuhaj
.

.
May 20, ca. 1975
Triborough Bridge - .75
collection of George S. Cuhaj
April 28, 1975 - 1980
Throgs Neck Bridge - .75
collection of George S. Cuhaj
.

.
December 5, 1979
Verrazano Narrows Bridge - $1.00
authors collection
.

.
October 22, (1975-1982)
Verrazano Narrows Bridge - $1.00
authors collection
September 3, (1975-82)
Verrazano Narrows Bridge - $1.00
collection of George S. Cuhaj
October 12, 1995
Verrazano Narrows Bridge - $6.00
authors collection
.

.
September 16, 1992
Queens Midtown Tunnel $2.50
authors collection
September 16, 1992
Queens Midtown Tunnel $2.50
authors collection
.

.
.

.
May 17, 1994
Brooklyn Battery Tunnel
- $3.00
authors collection
February 20, 1996
Brooklyn Battery Tunnel - $3.00
authors collection



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Internal Documents & Reference Materials

Marine Parkway Authority - 1937
collection of MTA Archives
.

.
New York City Tunnel Authority - ca. 1940
.

.
New York City Tunnel Authority - 1942
Toll Scrip accounting from November 1940 (opening of Queen Midtown Tunnel) to March 1942
New York City Tunnel Authority - ca. 1942
Toll Schedule, Scrip Issues and Wartime Scrip Book Plan
.

.
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - ca. 1966
Toll Book Order Form - Form A-111
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - ca. 1973
Toll Book Order Form - Form A-111
.

.
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - June 13, 1973
Memorandum, re: Special Ticket overprinting
.

.
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - April 19, 1982
Toll Book Order Form for Commercial Vehicles, handout at toll books
.

.
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - April 20, 1983
Toll Book Order Form - Form A-111
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - undated
Toll Book Order Form - expedient for hand out?
.

.
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - undated
Toll Book Order Form
.

.
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - June 19, 1986
Memorandum, re: old barcode scrip, new barcode scrip sizes, colors denominations
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority - December 8, 1986
Intra-governmental order form for Toll Books
.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Historical & Current Toll Fares for the TBTA

All vehicle classes are listed for crossing opening; for subsequent toll hikes, only passenger autos are listed.
See
.pdf file for tolls for additional vehicle classes, Staten Island & Rockaway Resident, Carpool, E-ZPass and E-token toll discount amounts.

Notes:
franchise buses were only allowed on bridges, not tunnels
cars with semi-trailer = trailer with one axle (total three axles)
cars with trailer = trailer with two axles (total four axles)
what I refer to as cars are listed as passenger automobiles

Major Crossings:

Triborough Bridge
1936
Bronx-Whitestone Bridge
1939
Queens Midtown Tunnel
1940
class vehicle toll
1 passenger autos, all types taxicab,
ambulances, hearses, horsedrawn vehicles
25¢
2 trucks, 2 axle, less than 2 tons 25¢
3 2 axle trucks, 2 - 5 tons 35¢
4 2 axle trucks, more than 5 tons 50¢
5 all buses 50¢
6 3 axle trucks, tractors, cars w/ semi trailer 60¢
7 4 axle trucks, tractors, cars with trailer 75¢
8 motorcycles 15¢
9 bicycles 10¢
class vehicle toll
1 passenger autos, all types taxicab,
ambulances, hearses, horsedrawn vehicles
25¢
2 2 axle trucks, less than 2 tons 25¢
3 2 axle trucks, 2 - 5 tons 35¢
4 2 axle trucks, more than 5 tons 50¢
5 all buses 50¢
6 3 axle trucks, tractors,
passenger autos w/ semi trailer
60¢
7 4 axle trucks, tractors, cars with trailer 75¢
8 motorcycles 15¢
9 bicycles 10¢
class vehicle toll
1 passenger auto, all types taxicabs,
ambulances & hearses
25¢
2 trucks, 2 axle, less than 2 tons 25¢
3 trucks, 2 axle, 2 -5 tons 40¢
4 trucks, 2 axle, over 5 ton 60¢
5 buses (2 & 3 axle) 50¢
6 trucks, three axle trucks, tractors or
passenger autos w/ semi trailer
75¢
7 4 axle trucks, tractors or passenger auto w/ trailer $1.00
8 special classification tbd
9 motorcycles 15¢
1/5/1972 50¢ 1/5/1972 50¢ 1/5/1972 50¢
3/1/1976 75¢ 3/1/1976 75¢ 3/1/1976 75¢
5/19/1980 $1.00 5/19/1980 $1.00 5/19/1980 $1.00
4/19/1982 $1.25 4/19/1982 $1.25 4/19/1982 $1.25
1/3/1984 $1.50 1/3/1984 $1.50 1/3/1984 $1.50
1/1/1986 $1.75 1/1/1986 $1.75 1/1/1986 $1.75
2/7/1987 $2.00 2/7/1987 $2.00 2/7/1987 $2.00
no change
7/16/1989 $2.50 7/16/1989 $2.50 7/16/1989 $2.50
1/31/1993 $3.00 1/31/1993 $3.00 1/31/1993 $3.00
3/24/1996 $3.50 3/24/1996 $3.50 3/24/1996 $3.50
5/18/2003 $4.00 5/18/2003 $4.00 5/18/2003 $4.00
The NY State Supreme Court ruled that the 5/18/2003 toll hike was not valid and ordered the toll rates reverted back to their prior amounts;
however the actual tolls at the crossing were not reduced due to the appeals and automatic stay process
6/4/2003 $3.50 6/4/2003 $3.50 6/4/2003 $3.50
The NY State Appellate Court overturned the lower courts' ruling and allowed the TBTA to raise the toll tariffs to the original 5/18/2003 rates. In actuality they were already at that amount.
7/15/2003 $4.00 7/15/2003 $4.00 7/15/2003 $4.00
3/15/2005 $4.50 3/15/2005 $4.50 3/15/2005 $4.50
3/16/2008 $5.00 3/16/2008 $5.00 3/16/2008 $5.00
7/12/2009 $5.50 7/12/2009 $5.50 7/12/2009 $5.50
12/30/2010 $6.50 12/30/2010 $6.50 12/30/2010 $6.50
3/23/2013 $7.50 3/23/2013 $7.50 3/23/2013 $7.50
3/22/2015 $8.00 3/22/2015 $8.00 3/22/2015 $8.00
3/9/2017 $8.50 3/9/2017 $8.50 3/9/2017 $8.50
3/19/2019
to present
$9.50 3/19/2019
to present
$9.50 3/19/2019
to present
$9.50
Triborough Bridge
Bronx-Whitestone Bridge
Queens Midtown Tunnel

Brooklyn Battery Tunnel
1950
Throgs Neck Bridge
1961
Verrazano Narrows Bridge
upper deck: 1964
lower deck: 1969
class vehicle toll
passenger autos (proposed)
25¢
1 passenger autos, all types, station wagons, 
ambulances, hearses (actual upon opening)
35¢
2 trucks, 2 axle, less than 2 tons 35¢
3 2 axle trucks, 2 - 5 tons 50¢
4 2 axle trucks, more than 5 tons 75¢
5 buses (other than franchise), all 2 axle vehicles transporting more than 10 persons including operator 75¢
6 3 axle trucks, tractors, non-franchise buses, passenger autos w/ semi trailer $1.00
7 4 axle trucks, tractors, non-franchise buses, or
passenger autos with trailer
$1.25
8 franchise buses (bridges only) n/a
9 motorcycles 25¢
0 non revenue vehicles 0

toll rate for vehicles having more than 4 axles, other than oversized vehicles, each additional axle 35¢
class vehicle toll
1 passenger autos, all types, station wagons, 
ambulances, hearses,
25¢
2 trucks, 2 axle, less than 2 tons 25¢
3 2 axle trucks, 2 - 5 tons 40¢
4 2 axle trucks, more than 5 tons 60¢
5 buses (other than franchise), all 2 axle vehicles transporting more than 10 persons including operator 55¢
6 3 axle trucks, tractors, non-franchise buses, passenger autos w/ semi trailer .75
7 4 axle trucks, tractors, non-franchise buses, or
passenger autos with trailer
$1.00
8 franchise buses (bridges only) 25¢
9 motorcycles 15¢
0 non revenue vehicles 0

toll rate for vehicles having more than 4 axles, other than oversized vehicles, each additional axle 35¢
class vehicle toll
1 2 axle passenger autos all types, station wagons, 
ambulances, hearses, franchise buses engaged in general transportation, and
2 axle trucks less than 2 tons
50¢
2 passenger automobiles w/ semi trailer 75¢
3 2 axle trucks, 2 - 5 tons 75¢
4 2 axle trucks more than 5 tons,
passenger autos with 2 axle trailer
$1.00
5 2 axle buses (other than buses in 1 above), and all
2 axle vehicles transporting 10 or more persons including operator
$1.00
6 3 axle trucks, tractors, buses,  $1.25
7 4 axle trucks, tractors, buses, $1.50
8 5 axle vehicles $2.00
9 motorcycles 50¢
0 non revenue vehicles 0

toll rate for vehicles having more than 5 axles, other than oversized vehicles, each additional axle 50¢
1/5/1972 70¢ 1/5/1972 50¢ 1/5/1972 75¢
3/1/1976 75¢ 3/1/1976 75¢ 3/1/1976 $1.00
5/19/1980 $1.00 5/19/1980 $1.00 5/19/1980 $1.00 - no increase
4/19/1982 $1.25 4/19/1982 $1.25 4/19/1982 $1.25
1/3/1984 $1.50 1/3/1984 $1.50 1/3/1984 $1.50
1/1/1986 $1.75 1/1/1986 $1.75 1/1/1986 $1.75
2/7/1987 $2.00 2/7/1987 $2.00 2/7/1987 $2.00
3/15/1987 $4.00 - tolls now doubled
                 but collected
                 NY bound only
7/16/1989 $2.50 7/16/1989 $2.50 7/16/1989 $5.00
1/31/1993 $3.00 1/31/1993 $3.00 1/31/1993 $6.00
3/24/1996 $3.50 3/24/1996 $3.50 3/24/1996 $7.00
5/18/2003 $4.00 5/18/2003 $4.00 5/18/2003 $8.00
The NY State Supreme Court ruled that the 5/18/2003 toll hike was not valid and ordered the toll rates reverted back to their prior amounts;
however the actual tolls at the crossing were not reduced due to the appeals and automatic stay process
6/4/2003 $3.50 6/4/2003 $3.50 6/4/2003 $7.00
The NY State Appellate Court overturned the lower courts' ruling and allowed the TBTA to raise the toll tariffs to the original 5/18/2003 rates. In actuality they were already at that amount.
7/15/2003 $4.00 7/15/2003 $4.00 7/15/2003 $8.00
3/15/2005 $4.50 3/15/2005 $4.50 3/15/2005 $9.00
3/16/2008 $5.00 3/16/2008 $5.00 3/16/2008 $10.00
7/12/2009 $5.50 7/12/2009 $5.50 7/12/2009 $11.00
12/30/2010 $6.50 12/30/2010 $6.50 12/30/2010 $13.00
3/23/2013 $7.50 3/23/2013 $7.50 3/23/2013 $15.00
3/22/2015 $8.00 3/22/2015 $8.00 3/22/2015 $16.00
3/9/2017 $8.50 3/9/2017 $8.50 3/9/2017 $17.00
3/19/2019
to present
$9.50 3/19/2019
to present
$9.50 3/19/2019
to present
$19.00
Brooklyn Battery Tunnel
Throgs Neck Bridge
Verrazano Narrows Bridge

.

.
Minor Crossings:

Henry Hudson Bridge
1936
Marine Parkway Bridge
7/3/1937

Cross Bay Bridge
1939 (rebuilt 1970)
class vehicle toll
1 2 axle passenger autos all types, station wagons, 
ambulances, hearses, franchise buses engaged in general transportation, and
2 axle trucks less than 2 tons
10¢

(Henry Hudson Parkway: cars & motorcycles only -
no commercial traffic)

9 motorcycles 10¢
class vehicle toll

passenger cars
15¢*
passenger trailers 50¢

motorcycles 15¢*
bicycles 10¢
franchise buses 25¢
charter buses 50¢

commerical vehicles up to 2 tons 25¢

5 ton trucks
35¢

10 ton trucks 50¢

axle trailers 60¢

double axle trailers 75¢
class vehicle toll
1 2 axle passenger autos all types, station wagons, 
ambulances, hearses
10¢
2 2 axle trucks less than 2 tons 10¢
3 2 axle trucks, 2 - 5 tons 25¢
4 2 axle trucks more than 5 tons,
passenger autos with 2 axle trailer
35¢
5 2 axle buses (other than buses in 1 above), and all
2 axle vehicles transporting 10 or more persons including operator
35¢
6 3 axle trucks, tractors, buses,  40¢
7 4 axle trucks, tractors, buses, 50¢
8 franchise buses 10¢
9 motorcycles 10¢
1939 10¢ *Marine Parkway Bridge reduced upon
Cross Bay Bridge opening
1939 10¢
1970 10¢ 1970 10¢ 
1/5/1972 25¢ 1/5/1972 25¢ 1/5/1972 25¢
3/1/1976 50¢ 3/1/1976 50¢ 3/1/1976 50¢
6/2/1980 60¢ 6/16/1980 75¢ 6/16/1980 75¢
4/19/1982 90¢ 4/19/1982 90¢ 4/19/1982 90¢
1/3/1984 no increase 1/3/1984 no increase 1/3/1984 no increase
2/7/1987 $1.00 2/7/1987 $1.00 2/7/1987 $1.00
7/6/1989 $1.25 7/16/1989 $1.25 7/16/1989 $1.25
1/31/1993 $1.50 1/31/1993 $1.50 1/31/1993 $1.50
3/24/1996 $1.75 3/24/1996 $1.75 3/24/1996 $1.75
5/18/2003 $2.00 5/18/2003 $2.00 5/18/2003 $2.00
3/15/2005 $2.25 3/15/2005 $2.25 3/15/2005 2.25
3/16/2008 $2.75 3/16/2008 $2.50 3/16/2008 $2.50
7/12/2009 $3.00 7/12/2009 $2.75 7/12/2009 2.75
12/30/2010 $4.00 12/30/2010 $3.25  12/30/2010 $3.25
3/3/2013 $5.00 3/3/2013 $3.75  3/3/2013 $3.75
3/22/2015 $5.50 3/22/2015 $4.00 3/22/2015 $4.00
3/19/2017 $6.00 3/19/2017 $4.25 3/19/2017 $4.25
3/31/2019
to present
$7.00 3/31/2019
to present
$4.75 3/31/2019
to present
$4.75
Henry Hudson Bridge Marine Parkway Bridge Cross Bay Bridge

.


.

Current Toll Fares TBTA / MTA Crossings - Tolls By Mail (Full Price)

.


Just announced: 
Split tolling will return on the Verrazzano Narrows Bridge. 
Legislation passed the House on December 18, 2019 and is expected to be signed by the Senate and the President by end of the week.
Tolls will be $9.50 each direction until next fare raise.



Bronx Whitestone Bridge
Throgs Neck Bridge
Triborough "Robert F. Kennedy" Bridge
Brooklyn Battery "Hugh L. Carey" Tunnel
Queens Midtown Tunnel
Verrazano Narrows Bridge
(toll collected entering
Staten Island / westbound only)

Cross Bay "Veterans Memorial" Bridge
and
Marine Parkway "Gil Hodges" Bridge
Henry Hudson Parkway Bridge
two axles auto
two axles
three axles
four axles
five axles
six axles
seven axles
additional axles
$9.50
$19.00
$31.29
$39.12
$51.41
$59.24
$73.76
$11.18
two axles auto
two axles
three axles
four axles
five axles
six axles
seven axles
additional axles
$19.00
$38.00
$62.58
$78.24
$102.82
$118.48
$147.52
$22.36
two axles auto
two axles
three axles
four axles
five axles
six axles
seven axles
additional axles
$4.75
$9.50
$15.65
$19.56
$25.71
$29.62
$36.88
$5.59
two axles auto only
no trucks allowed
$7.00

for Current E-ZPass and Commuter Discount toll amounts, please refer to the MTA Bridges & Tunnels website at: MTA Bridges & Tunnels - Tolls


PDF file of official toll tables - ca. 1938 to present;
for all vehicles classes; all notations, E-ZPass, Carpool, Franchise Buses, Staten Island and Rockaway Resident, E-Token, Staten Island E-Token and Rockaway E-Token Rates
.

.
TABLE OF CONTENTS





.
New York State Bridge and Tunnel Commission / New Jersey Interstate Bridge & Tunnel Commission
.
Port of New York Authority / Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
.
   
.
   For those tunnels and bridges that are interstate, that is connecting New York and New Jersey; these crossings fall under the jurisdiction of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey:


crossing name date opened
Holland Tunnel November 13, 1927
Goethals Bridge original span: June 29, 1928
new eastbound span: June 10, 2017
new westbound span: May 21, 2018
Outerbridge Crossing June 29, 1928
George Washington Bridge upper deck: October 24, 1931
lower deck:  August 29, 1962
Bayonne Bridge November 15, 1931
deck height raised
northbound lanes opened: February 20, 2017
southbound lanes February 11, 2019,
Lincoln Tunnel
formerly "Midtown Hudson Tunnel"
center tube: December 22, 1937
north tube: February 1, 1945
south tube: May 25, 1957
   
   The Port of New York Authority was originally established on April 30, 1921 via an interstate compact between the states of New York and New Jersey. This compact was enacted by the U.S. Congress. The PNYA 
was the first such agency in the U.S. so created under a provision in the Constitution of the United States permitting interstate compacts.


   However, the first of the vehicular crossings built, the Holland Tunnel; was originally planned built and operated by the New York State Bridge & Tunnel Commission. The Holland Tunnel, which opened in 1927; was operated as a joint venture of the New York State Bridge & Tunnel Commission and the New Jersey Interstate Bridge & Tunnel Commission.    

   Originally known as the "Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel" or the "Canal Street Tunnel", the tunnel would be renamed the Holland Tunnel in memory of Clifford Milburn Holland, the chief engineer. Mr. Holland passed away suddenly in 1924 prior to the tunnels' opening.


   Now, with this short history covered, lets get down to the fiscal issues.

   As far as my personal collection, the earliest piece of toll exonumia that I own, is for the Holland Tunnel opening day on November 13, 1927. Other than the one in my collection, I have seen one other from opening day (very exorbitantly overpriced), and others from several days later.

   While I originally attributed it to being a "simple" toll receipt, I took note of its perforation and the duplication of portions of the information. This perforation made me ponder as to its purpose. Why the need for a two part receipt? Unless in fact, it is the prepaid class ticket as mentioned in the Port of New York Authority Annual Reports and as mentioned later on this website.

   The reason I now suspect that this is a prepaid class ticket, is that the the top portion bears no rules and regulations as the bottom half does, which would understandably be the drivers portion to be retained after presentation for passage, with the top portion being detached and kept by the toll collector.

   Furthermore, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey blog has an almost identical issue displayed (albeit from 6 days later) and they call it a "ticket". All the examples I have seen, whether in museums and those for sale have the two parts attached as seen, and I have not encountered just the bottom (receipt) portion on its own, which would be expected as after the top portion is detached, the bottom portion had no value; and they were simply discarded.
.
Holland Tunnel Prepaid Class Ticket (Class II) - opening day: November 13, 1927
 3
 " (height) - 3" (width) - .008 (thickness)
authors collection
.

.
   The toll schedule for the Holland Tunnel when opened, was as follows:

Vehicle Type Group # Rate
Motorcycle I 0.25
Passenger Automobile, with a capacity up to 7 passengers,
ambulance or hearse
II 0.50
Bus, (up to and including 29 passenger seating capacity) III 1.00
Truck, up to 2 tons IV 0.50
2 ton+ to 5 ton Truck V 0.75
5 ton+ to 10 ton Truck VI 1.00
Trucks exceeding 10 tons capacity and not exceeding
15 tons Gross Weight and not exceeding 12 tons axle load
VII 2.00
Vehicles admitted by special permit, only VIII Special*
additional passengers added to base toll,
over and above driver and single passenger)
0.05
 
.

.
   Seen below, is a almost identical prepaid class ticket and receipt for the Goethals Bridge. On this ticket, one will note the Dept. (Class) is II +1, and the charge amount of 55 cents. For those of you paying attention, the toll of 55 cents seems odd, as when the Goethals & Outerbridge Crossings spans opened, the passenger automobile toll rate was 50 cents. So where does 55 cents factor in? Well, I'll tell you:

   55 cents
equates to the toll for a Class 
II vehicle (passenger automobile), with a driver and one passenger. Obviously, the driver was included in the base 50 cent toll fare for passenger automobiles, however an additional charge of 5 cents per each additional passenger was charged when the spans first opened, therefore 50 cents + 5 cents = 55 cents. Eventually, this charge for extra passengers would be eliminated.

   Images of this ticket were located in a 2012 Staten Island Advance / SILive.com article on the internet. The ticket, at the time of the article's publishing; resided in possession of Mr. Owen Auer, of Grasmere, Staten Island. Mr. Auer states the ticket was issued
to grandfather when he paid to cross the span on July 15, 1928, just a few weeks after the span opened.
If Mr. Auer (or his descendants) happen across this website, it would be greatly appreciated if they would contact me at bedt14@aol.com

Goethals Bridge Prepaid Class Ticket (Class II +1) - July 15, 1928
(dimensions unknown but believed to be identical to Holland Tunnel ticket above.)
O. Auer collection

.


.    In 1930, following a disagreement between those two commissions, the Port of New York Authority was contracted to operate the Holland Tunnel from April 21, 1930 through March 1, 1931. At this time, the Port of New York Authority would assume all responsibility for operation, repair, and governance.

   The expanded Port of New York Authority took over operations for as well as planned for the planning and operation of the Goethals Bridge, Outerbridge Crossing, George Washington Bridge, Bayonne Bridge and the Lincoln Tunnel, when each crossing opened
. It was also responsible for the operation of many of the shipping terminals, as well as LaGuardia and Idlewild / J. F. K Airports as each opened.

   
The Port of New York Authority would eventually being renamed the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in 1972, to better reflect the bi-state operation. Frankly, New Jersey did not like being left out, the bunch of whiners! Hell, they have been trying to steal the Statue of Liberty from New York for decades! LOL - just kidding Jerseyites!  
.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

.


Port of New York Authority Scrip

.

the Seal of the Port of New York Authority

.

The First Scrip Issue for New York


   The first known toll scrip to be issued for the interstate crossings in the New York Metropolitan Area, is the TS series of 1935 issued by Port of New York Authority. It is presumed TS stands for "Toll Scrip".

   
In the preparation for creating this website, my research on the web revealed a piece of this scrip to be displayed in the Hoboken Historical Museum, where it is stated:

"While undated, toll scrip was not issued until August 9, 1951."

.
   As best as my research has uncovered, this description is blatantly incorrect. Multiple facts that contradict that statement are known, and are as follows:
  1. The Twenty-Five Cents scrip in my collection, marked Series TS1-1935, clearly lacks Lincoln Tunnel in the list of crossings on the face. This makes perfect sense, as the Lincoln Tunnel did not open until December 22, 1937, and thus with the scrip being issued two years prior in 1935. (The next denomination in that series, Fifty Cents, Series TS2-1935, does list the Lincoln Tunnel as do all other subsequent issues of scrip.)
    .
  2. The 25 cent script (and the intaglio plates) carry the facsimile signature (in lower right corner) of John E. Ramsey, who held the position of General Manager of the Port of New York Authority, from 1926 through 1942. It was not until 1942 that Austin J. Tobin became executive director, and of whom would hold the position until 1972.
    .
  3. Furthermore, it is within the Port of New York Authority annual reports themselves dated 1932 and 1933, that state tickets and scrip were created in those discussions covering "continuation tickets" and in 1933 with the issuance of toll scrip.
    .
  4. As Austin Tobin commenced holding his position of Executive Director beginning in 1942, and that this date still predates the statement "not issued until August 9, 1951."
    .
  5. The 50 cent note seen below which is overtyped War Department Vehicles. As the War Department was dissolved in September 1947; this note had to have existed and been issued prior to that date, and just as obviously; issued before the (erroneous) stated issue date of 1951;
    .
  6. And, then there is the New York Time article at right, dated December 31, 1934.
   .
   Also to be considered, is that appointment date (1942) of Austin J. Tobin to executive directorship; many of the notes dated 1935 (and with the exception of the 1951 and 1960 dated scrip) obviously must have printed after 1942 for his name to even be listed in that position on that note!


   Furthermore, reading the New York Times article at right carefully, also reveals that the 1935 issue of scrip replaced pre-paid class tickets which would be treated at toll scrip and accepted at face value regardless of the class it was issued for. So, there was an issue of pre-paid toll payment prior to the scrip issues of 1935.

   So with all things being said, the Hoboken Museum's description is erroneous and needs correction. I have sent them numerous emails, but to no response nor any revision on their website has been forthcoming.

   And this is yet another reason why I felt it was necessary to get this website published.

Please note:
   Before we progress further, you will notice I have displayed the issues grouped by denomination, not by issue year (1935, 1951, 1960, etc). I have organized them in this fashion, so as to more easily show the differences of design between issues of the same denomination, instead of the reader having to scroll up and down this page to compare.


   Here is where the scrip history gets interesting and is probably going to be a learning curve for all of us.

   Note the Series TS1 - 1935 on the twenty-five cent; then TS2 - 1935 on the fifty cent, TS3 - 1935 on the seventy five cent, etcetera, etcetera. The Series TS number advances from TS1 to TS2 to TS3 based on the denomination, not the year. The date remains unchanged. 

   BUT! We can plainly see, there is a One and 50/100 Dollar ($1.50) is marked TS5-1951. This piece now confirms additional date issues. In addition to this, a recently acquired TS1 - 25 Cents piece is marked TS1-196o. So we know have three distinct issue dates. As for the new design notes, we know 1969 and 1970 exist, but more about those later.

   If other years exist for the older design of the Port of New York Authority scrip, they remain to be discovered.

   So, it is safe to conclude that the TS code (TS1, TS2, etc) denotes the denomination (and not an actual series year)
:

TS1 = 25¢
TS2 = 50¢
TS3 = 75¢
TS4 = $1.00
TS5 = $1.50
TS7 = $3.00

It is unknown at this time if TS6 exists - but it is believed to, and the denomination should be in the $1.75 to $2.75 range


.
   And so, it is the year that follows the TS number, which in fact denotes the series issue:


1935, 1951, 1960, and 1969, 1970 (newer Statue of Liberty design)
.
.

Printers:

   The printer observed for most of the TS series, was none other than the renowned publishing firm of maps and atlases, Rand McNally; as these issues carry their name in one form or another.

   Their name is seen on the front left edge of note parallel with perforation as "Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago". It then appears to have been relocated to the back bottom of the note. Then we see a simple "Rand McNally" in this location.

   Finally, one series of notes does not have their name at all; leaving the question open as to whether Rand McNally printed this series at all.

   Coming to light in March 2020, are a set of steel plates for the Port of New York Authority scrip in .50, .75 and $1.00 denominations. Only the $1.00 plate is engraved "Security Banknote Company". These plates were sold at an auction in 2008. These plates yield a bit of other information to us, to be discussed later.

   As for the Commutation Issues; most are printed by Rand McNally as well, however at least one series: Series F-4 1934/1935 is known to have been printed by another firm: International Ticket.
.

.
Intaglio & Offset Lithography

   There are two known printing methods for the Port of New York Authority scrip. The first is known as intaglio printing (pronounced in-TAH-lee-OH - the "g" is silent. And after all these years, I find out I've been pronouncing it wrong! )

   Intaglio printing is accomplished by intricately engraved metal plates usually made of steel, but copper can be used also. As copper is softer, it is not as durable as steel plates, but is suitable for lower quantity runs. The image design and lettering is engraved in reverse or negative on intaglio plates. When run through a printing press, the image when transferred directly to paper, and therefore is now a positive image. It gives the ink on the notes a slight relief (raised) feel, and also results in very crisp designs. Intaglio engraving is also an expensive, time consuming process; taking hundreds of hours of engraving per design. And one slip or error, the plate can be ruined and needs to be redone or at least hours of extensive repairs performed.
This is the method of printing used for United States currency (paper money) as well as many other countries throughout the world. The intricacies of the design and the texture or "feel" of the printing make it difficult to counterfeit and the plates are durable for millions of impressions.

   Until the intaglio printing plates were seen in an old auction catalog, the printer was unknown. With their discovery, we can now determine the intaglio printed notes were produced by Security Banknote Company.


   The other printing method known to have been used in printing the scrip, is the offset lithography process. Offset lithography printing is a method of mass-production printing in which the images are etched in negative onto a thin metal plate by
a photographic and chemical process. Once the metal plate is installed on the press; the process utilizes the immiscibility of oil based inks and water based "fountain" solution - the image etched on the plate which will hold the ink, and the unprinted area or "unetched", which does not. This is then transferred (offset) to rubber blankets or rollers and once again to the print media (paper). The print media, usually paper, does not come into direct contact with the metal plate as it does in the intaglio process. This lithographic process is much cheaper and less labor intensive for documents and printed matter of mass production but of a disposable or replaceable value. Most of the "quick print" shops that existed and some still do today, are based on this offset process. This was all prior to the advent of cheap color copies and stores that offered mass production printing such as Kinkos, Staples and OfficeMax.

   To date, the lithography printed script is either marked Rand McNally, International Ticket Company or unmarked for printer.

.
   Delving further into the intricacies of the designs of Port of New York Authority scrip, there are many unique features of the TS1 - 1935 25 cent note that bear pointing out, when compared to notes of following series:
  1. Only the Series TS1 - 1935 notes is known to have been printed via the intaglio method.

  2. The facsimile signature in lower right corner is believed to be that of John E. Ramsey, who held the position of General Manager of the Port of New York Authority, from 1930 through 1942. It was not until 1942 that Austin J. Tobin became executive director, and he held the position from 1942 – 1972. His signature appears on Series TS2 50 cent and all subsequent denomination issues.
    .
  3. The Series TS1-1935 (on right edge of note) has the same color red ink as the serial number. As the serial number (as well as any additional colors (if any) in the design would be printed by numbering machines in a second "pass" of the uncut sheets of notes through another printing press. It therefore appears that both the serial number AND Series TS1-1935 was imprinted after the main printing of the note. (On subsequent issues, the series number and year is the same color as main face printing of the note and therefore the series & year appear to have added to the main design, with only the red serial number being added in a second pass.
    .
  4. Only this TS1-1935 issue is printed on light card stock - measuring .010" thick. (Paper thickness is .005" on all following lithography issues.)

The Printing Plates from the Security Banknote Company

    As I scour the web and encounter old auction catalogs, I am sometimes rewarded with nuggets of history. On March 11, 2020; I encountered the following set of plates for three of the four denominations of Port of New York Authority Toll Script that had been auctioned by Stacks Bowers in February 2008; and formerly of the Rich Uhrich collection.

   From these intaglio plates, we glean these design details:

1.   There were intaglio issues for .50, .75 and $1.00; and while the plate is not in this auction, the .25 intaglio note in my collection confirms one existed.
.
2.   These plates were for the earliest issues as they carry John E. Ramsey's signature as general manager, and of whom held that position from 1930 to 1942;

3.   As the Lincoln Tunnel is listed on these plates (but not on the 25 cent note in my collection), it is presumed these plates were engraved in 1936 or 1937 prior to the opening of, and to
include the Lincoln Tunnel on the scrip issues. This now leads us to conclude a prior set of plates also existed, without the Lincoln Tunnel and bearing the legend Interstate Crossings
(used prior to the Lincoln Tunnel opening and which would have been used for printing the 25¢ in my collection).

.
4.   The design intricacies of these three plates: 4 lines per "ray", rays extending to the border, and the "crowns" flanking the written out denomination,
and matches those details on the .25 note in my collection;.
.
5.   However, while the security field design is the same amongst the .50, .75 and $1.00, it is different from the .25 note.
The .50, .75 and $1.00 security fields have lenticular ovals (footballs), triangles and six pointed stars. The .25 uses a circle, square, and diamond security field.

   Unfortunately, it appears the back plates were not included in the sale, but is presumed to be the guilloché back. I would like to ask whomever currently has the privilege of owning these plates, please get in touch with me at bedt14@aol.com and as I would like to the opportunity to acquire more images of the plate design (backs, sides, dimensions). 

courtesy of Stacks Bowers auction catalog; Rich Uhrich collection; February 27, 2008
(shown slightly enlarged)
.

   Other details now observed are different geometric security patterns for the signature field. As of January 2020, four different security designs have been observed:
  • the circle, square & diamond design has only been seen on the .25 cent intaglio note
  • the lenticular ovals (footballs), triangles and six pointed stars on the .50, .75, and $1.00 notes, as seen from printing plates in previous chapter.
  • the crescent, wedge & line; as well as
  • the cross design
   .
   Furthermore, these designs are broken down:
  • notes without GOOD UNTIL USED have been observed in the following combinations:
    • intaglio with circles, squares & diamonds security field on the .25 with guilloché back and 
    • intaglio with lenticular ovals (footballs), triangles & six pointed stars security field on the .50, .75, and $1.00 notes with guilloché back, 
    • lithograph with crescent, wedge & line security pattern and guilloché back;
      .
  • lithograph notes with (sans-serif) Optima GOOD UNTIL USED, cross security pattern on the face is seen with the (serif) Bank Roman numerals on the back, 
    .
  • lithograph notes with (serif) Roman GOOD UNTIL USED and crescent wedge & line security pattern on the face are now seen with (serif) Bank Roman numerals AND (sans-serif) Agency numerals on back.

   Also take note that with the cross style security field, there is an unprinted area conforming around the signature to help it stand out. This "buffer zone" is not evident on the other designs.

.
. 



   The following is graphic compilation of the design differences amongst the basic issues. I do wish to emphasize; there is a very good likelihood that despite my attempt to account for the design differences chronologically, the differences may have occurred within date groups and as scrip was reordered as a result of attrition over time.

   If this is the case, then the "year" issues will have multiple printings which will exhibit the variances. This remains to be confirmed or disproved as more notes surface and are cataloged.

   Also please note that names of typefaces / fonts used in descriptions are the closest approximation found in typeface catalogs.

.

.


.
Signatures: J. E. Ramsey vs. Austin J. Tobin

   As we see on the notes, two different signatures are observed on the various series of notes. The first signature, is that of John E. Ramsey, and would have been in effect when he held the position of General Manager of the Port of New York Authority. He would hold this position from his initial appointment in 1926 through 1942.

   In 1942, Austin J. Tobin was appointed to replace him, in the position of Executive Director of the Port of New York Authority, and the signature on the script was changed to reflect this. He would hold this position until 1972.

   As such, we obviously see the issues of toll scrip dated 1935 but yet carrying Austin J. Tobin's signature. Therefore these notes would have had to have been printed in, or very shortly after; 1942. Therefore those notes dated 1935, but carrying Tobin's signature; are cataloged below as 1935 (1942).
The 1951 and 1960 dated issues eliminate this ambiguity.

   Also of particular note, there are two styles of Tobin's signature. One, with a "P" shaped cursive letter A in Austin, and a diagonal line connecting the horizontal and vertical segments of the letter T in Tobin. (see at right below). These differences can be compared in the above chapter if need be. So far only notes bearing this type of signature, are those with Optima "GOOD UNTIL USED" on front left edge of face and with double frame back with banknote roman .25, .50, .75 or 1.00 numerals
.

   The second style (seen at left below), the A in Austin is a simple oval, and the T in Tobin lacks the diagonal connector. This style appears on all other Tobin era notes.




   The reasons for the differences in signature style are not known, but it has been observed that in some cases executive secretaries are known to have been authorized to affix their superiors signatures in performance of official duties. If this was indeed the case is not known. The most logical reason is, people's "flourishes" in their signatures do vary to some degree.

 
.


.
Back Design Differences on same series notes

.
   As this research digs deeper; it now appears there are FIVE distinct back designs for the TS series:

  • Guilloché Back, (both intaglio and lithograph printed notes)
  • Single Frame Back with Banknote Roman Numerals,
  • Double Frame Back with Banknote Roman Numerals,
  • Frame Back with Agency (Square Block) Numerals
  • and Frame Back - no numerals

Single Frame w/ Guilloché Back
Single Frame w/
Banknote Roman (serif) Numerals
Double Frame w/
Banknote Roman (serif) Numerals
Single Frame w/ Agency (sans-serif square block) Numerals Single Frame only
no Numerals
confirmed denominations:
1935 - .25   - intaglio
1935 - .50   - intaglio & litho
1935 - .75   - intaglio & litho
1935 - 1.00 - intaglio & litho
1951  - 1.50 - litho
confirmed denominations:
1935 - $1.00
confirmed denominations:
1935 - .50
1935 - .75
1935 - $1.00
1935 - $1.50
confirmed denominations:
1935 - .25
1960 - .25
1935 - .50
1935 - .75
1935 - $1.00
1951 - $1.50
confirmed denominations:
1935 - .50
.
.
   While it was originally thought the guilloché back was exclusive to the intaglio printed notes, my purchase of two complete books of $1.00 - 1935 and $1.50 - 1951, both of which have guilloché backs. Therefore this is obviously no longer the case.

   The double frame back so far, is only seen on those lithographed notes with Bank Roman numerals in both 1935 (1942) and 1951 series, and the single frame back with both
Bank Roman numerals on 1935 series, and Agency square block numerals on 1935, 1951 and 1960 series notes.


Security Paper


   Other than the intaglio .25 in my collection, all other notes are most definitely lithographed. Lithographed notes are printed on security paper that carries a slightly ultraviolet reactive printing of 5 parallel lines with PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY. This appears to have been applied to the paper prior to the printing of the main design. This security mark is seen in both vertical and horizontal directions, depending on the issue. I hesitate from calling it an actual watermark as it is not viewable through the paper, but on it.

   This security mark can be seen on both the face and the back of the note; but it is reversed on the face (meaning it appears as if a mirror image on the face). The printing is seen with more ease on the back of the note, due to the large unprinted areas. I have recreated the security underprint and darkened it for review:
.
Security paper for lithographed TS Series 1935, 1951 and 1960 notes:
(as it appears on the face of the note) (as it appears on the back of the note)
.

.
   For the Commutation Issues, both the Port of New York Authority security paper above is seen, as well as one other: that bearing the mark of National Safety Paper as seen on the Series F-4 - 1934/1935 Motor Truck, 2 Axles, up to and including 2 tons as printed by International Ticket Company, Newark, NJ.
.
.
Security paper for lithographed F-4 Series Commutation Issue for 2 Axle Trucks 1934/35 notes:

(as it appears on the back of the note)
.

.
Overstamped / Overtyped / Perforated Issues

   Another interesting variety of, and seen on scrip; are those issues that have been either typed upon or overstamped with an operator name; or in some cases perforated for a specific user. These were in all likelihood; done so an employee of a trucking or bus firm did not use company issued scrip for their personal use in their private automobile.

   Judging from the crudity and different fonts used in the various stamps, it appears that in the cases of trucking and bus companies the company themselves applied their overstamp to each issue, not the issuing agency (TBTA or PANYNJ).

   In the case of military overstamps or perforations, this would also apply so a service member could not use government issued scrip for personal use; but even more so, it is known when tolls were first collected, military vehicles (as well as vehicles of Police and Fire Departments) passed through the toll barriers free on charge. So, the "U. S." perforation seen on issues may have been a way to account internally within the agency for some of those "no charge" issues.

Somehow, I just don't see this happening at the George Washington Bridge! What I want to know, is how many axles that tank constitutes..


    Seriously though, not all vehicles used in military service wore olive drab or navy gray and a lot of regular production black sedans were used by officials in the course of their duties.
And at this time, I am uncertain if the issuing agency did the perforating or the military.
.
.

Index to PNYA and PANYNJ Issues of Scrip:
.
Port of New York Authority (PNYA) Scrip & Commutation Issues - 1935 to 1972:

Port of New York Authority "original design"
TS1, TS2, TS3, TS4, TS5, TS6?, TS7
F-4, H-3, H-4, H-5, P

1935, 1951, 1960, 1969
Port of New York Authority "new design"
TS4, TS5?, TS6?, TS7
H-4,
1969 - 1972

.

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) Scrip & Commutation Issues: 1972 - 2012

"First" Series Scrip
1972 - ca. 1976
"Second" Series Scrip
ca. 1976 - ca. 1986
"Third" Series Scrip
ca. 1986 - ca. 1993
"Universal" Commuter
ca. 1991 - 2012
"Fourth" Series Scrip
ca. 1993 - 2012 .


.


Port of New York Authority Scrip - Original Design
TS Series 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6?, 7 - 1935, 1951, 1960, 1969


25 cents
PNYA - Series TS1 - 1935 - 25 cents
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:

security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
unknown - Security Banknote Company?
intaglio
none

purple
"INTERSTATE CROSSINGS" listed, no Lincoln Tunnel,
series number in red (presumably printed at time of s/n)
circles, squares & diamonds
J. E. Ramsey, General Manager

red, no prefix
purple

bowtie frame w/ guilloche
white cardstock
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.010" (thickness)
.

.
existence currently undetermined
PNYA - Series TS1 - 1935 - 25 cents
Optima GOOD UNTIL USED; frame back with Banknote Roman numerals - lithograph
.

.
PNYA - Series TS1 - 1960 - 25 cents
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:


security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally
lithograph
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority in horizontal format
lavender
8 pt. Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
"INTERSTATE CROSSINGS" removed, "LINCOLN TUNNEL" added
series number in face color,

crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix and serial number
blue

twist & floret frame w/ Agency square block numerals;
beige paper
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 
0.005" (thickness)
.


.
50 cents
PNYA - Series TS2 - 1935 - 50 cents
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:

security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
unknown - Security Banknote Company?
intaglio
unknown
unknown (believed to be in blue), series believed to be in red
no "GOOD UNTIL USED"
"INTERSTATE CROSSINGS" removed, "LINCOLN TUNNEL" added
lenticular ovals (footballs), triangles & 6 point stars
J. E. Ramsey, General Manager
prefix and serial number presumed to be in red
unknown (believed to be in blue)

unknown - presumably frame with guilloche

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 
thickness unknown
.

.
PNYA - Series TS2 - 1935 (1942) - 50 cents
The War Department was dissolved under the National Security Act, September 18, 1947.
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago
lithograph?
none?
blue
no "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix and serial number
blue

twist & floret frame with guilloche
seen w/ manual overtyping: WAR DEPARTMENT VEHICLES
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 
thickness unknown
.

.
.
PNYA - Series TS2 - 1935 (1942) - 50 cents
frame back with Banknote Roman numerals - lithograph
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
unknown
lithograph
alternating 5 lines with PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY in vertical format
blue
Optima (sans-serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crosses
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix and serial number
blue

wave double frame with Banknote Roman numerals

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 
0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA - Series TS2 - 1935 (1942) - 50 cents
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago
lithograph
alternating 5 lines with PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY in horizontal format
blue
8 pt. Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix and serial number
blue

twist & floret single frame w/ Agency numerals

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 
0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA - Series TS2 - 1935 (1942) - 50 cents
overstamp on back: "Associated Transport, Inc"
(Associated Transport was a trucking firm)
collection of George S. Cuhaj
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally
lithograph
alternating 5 lines with PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY in horizontal format
blue
8 pt. Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix and serial number
blue

twist & floret single frame w/ Agency numerals
overstamped: "ASSOCIATED TRANSPORT, INC" (trucking firm)
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 
0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA - Series TS2 - 1935 (1942) - 50 cents
overtype on face "FOR USE OF U.S. NAVY VEHICLE ONLY"
empty frame - no .50 denomination of back of note
collection of George S. Cuhaj
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago
lithograph
alternating 5 lines with PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY in horizontal format
blue
8 pt. Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix and serial number
blue

twist & floret single frame only - NO numerals
manually overtyped:  "FOR USE OF U.S. NAVY VEHICLE ONLY"
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 
0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA - Series TS2 - 1935 (1942) - 50 cents
empty frame - no .50 denomination of back of note
authors collection 
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago
lithograph
alternating 5 lines with PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY in horizontal format
blue
8 pt. Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix and serial number
blue

twist & floret single frame only - NO numerals

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 
0.005" (thickness)
.


.
75 cents
PNYA - Series TS3 - 1935 - 75 cents
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:


facsimile signature:

serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
unknown - Security Banknote Company?
intaglio
unknown
unknown (believed to be in green), series believed to be in red
no "GOOD UNTIL USED"
lenticular ovals (footballs), triangles & 6 point stars
"INTERSTATE CROSSINGS" removed, "LINCOLN TUNNEL" added
J. E. Ramsey, General Manager
red prefix and serial number
unknown (believed to be in green)

unknown - presumably frame with guilloche

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 
thickness unknown
.

.
PNYA - Series TS3 - 1935 (1942) - 75 cents
frame back, Banknote Roman numerals - lithograph
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:



size:
unknown
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority in vertical format
green
Optima (sans-serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED", series in face color
crosses
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director, see below
red
blue

wave double frame with Banknote Roman numerals
signature field on the above note is slightly narrower.
Also noted was a slightly different facsimile signature of Austin J. Tobin (note the "P" shaped
A and  T with ligature).

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
                                    crescent, wedge and line security field   cross security field                                          
.

.
PNYA - Series TS3 - 1935 (1942) - 75 cents
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority in horizontal format
green
8 pt Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director, see below
red prefix & serial number
blue

twist & floret single frame with Agency numerals

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.


.
$1.00
PNYA - Series TS3 - 1935 - $1.00
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:

security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Security Banknote Company
intaglio
unknown
unknown - presumed to be orange-red
series presumed to be in red, no "GOOD UNTIL USED",
"INTERSTATE CROSSINGS" removed, "LINCOLN TUNNEL" added,
lenticular ovals (footballs), triangles & 6 point stars
J. E. Ramsey, General Manager
unknown - presumed to be red prefix & serial number
unknown - presumed to be orange-red

unknown - presumed to be frame with guilloche

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - unknown - presumed to be cardstock
.

.
PNYA - Series TS4 - 1935 (1942) - $1.00
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority in horizontal format
orange-red
no "GOOD UNTIL USED", series in face color
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number
orange-red

twist & floret single frame with guilloche

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA - Series TS4 - 1935 (1942) - $1.00
single frame back, Banknote Roman serif numerals - lithograph
different font for crossing list, large "GOOD UNTIL USED"
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:



security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
unknown
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority in vertical format
orange-red
10 pt Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED" large 10 pt. Gloucester "GOOD UNTIL USED", interpunct between SERIES and TS4, long hyphen between TS4 and 1935, thick signature
"AT ANY OF THE FOLLOWING" and
list of Bridges & Tunnels in Franklin Gothic (san-serif) font

crude crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director (thick)
red prefix & serial number, no space between prefix & serial number
blue

wave single frame with Banknote Roman
note slightly larger than other issues

3 27/32" (width) - 2 5/32" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
same design as 75 cent and $1.50 note
with
sans-serif "GOOD UNTIL USED" and
crosses security field for signature area

PNYA - Series TS4 - 1935 (1942) - $1.00
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
unknown
lithography
unknown
orange-red
Optima (sans-serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number, no space between prefix & serial number
blue

double frame with Banknote Roman numerals

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA - Series TS4 - 1935 (1942) - $1.00
frame back, Agency square block sans-serif numerals - lithograph
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority in horizontal format
orange-red
8 pt Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number
blue

twist & floret frame with Agency numerals

3 13/16" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA - Series TS4 - 1935 (1942) - $1.00
perforated: "U S " (presumably government issue)

authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority in vertical format
orange-red
8 pt Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number
blue

twist & floret frame with Agency numerals
perforated U S

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.


.
$1.50
PNYA - Series TS5 - 1951 - $1.50 dollar
guilloché back - lithograph
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority in horizontal format
maroon
no "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
no prefix, red serial number
maroon

twist & floret frame with guilloche

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
same design as 75 & 1.00 cent note
with
sans-serif "GOOD UNTIL USED" and

crosses security field for signature area
PNYA - Series TS5 - 1951 - $1.50 dollar
frame back w/ Banknote Roman serif numerals - lithograph?
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
unknown
lithography
unknown - believed to be crosses
maroon
Optima (sans-serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number
blue

double frame with Banknote Roman numerals

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA - Series TS5 - 1951 - $1.50
frame back, Agency square block sans-serif numerals - lithograph
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority horizontal format
maroon
8 pt. Gloucester (serif) "GOOD UNTIL USED"
crescent, wedge & line
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number
blue

twist & floret single frame with Agency numerals

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.


.
Port of New York Authority "original design" - Commutation Books & Passes

   In addition to the TS Series 1-2-3-4-5 scrip above, we know of other series issued at this time: F-4, H-3, H-4, H-5, and P. These were known as Commutation Tickets.

   Where commuter tickets differ from toll scrip is, toll scrip was good until used (with no expiration date) and offered a minimal discount in consideration of advance purchase; whereas commutation tickets had an expiration date. The shorter the expiration the date, the greater the discount offered. In this manner, it was hoped that if you did not use all of the scrip purchased, the revenue from the unredeemed tickets would be a windfall to the issuing agency. Likewise, the longer period of time you had to use your tickets, ensured a higher redemption rate and therefore were issued at a lower discount rate.

   
In short, a commutation book contain a supply of tickets, usually only good for a set period of time, and were offered at a discount below the singular one way or round trip toll and further below the discount of scrip. This made it convenient for the commuter who drove to work on average 20 business day per month and who was almost certainly going to use all the scrip in that period of time.

Series H - Passenger Automobiles

   Referencing the Annual Reports of the Port of New York Authority, as well as comparing covers and tickets in my collection, I was able to ascertain some definition of the assigned series nomenclature.

   The Series H-3, H-4, H-5 are understood to be Commutation Scrip for Passenger Automobiles.


   Series H-4 is mentioned in the 1950 Annual Report as first being issued June 15, 1950 in the form of booklets containing 40 tickets for $10.00, valid for 30 days. Also mentioned are commutation issues for Staten Island Crossings that had been available for over 20 years. These are believed to be, Series H-3 as the tickets and covers witnessed are for Goethals, Outerbridge or Bayonne Bridges.

   This leaves Series H-5. While not mentioned in the annual reports by that designation, the report mentions a commutation issue in the form of booklets containing 25 tickets for $10.00 good for two years. Again, covers in my collection are witnessed to be marked H-5 that conform to this tariff and time period.

   There is no mention of Series H-1 or H-2 commutation issues, however. Delving into older Port of New York Authority Annual Reports does reveal there were other proposed commutation ticket issues.

   In 1928 however, a proposal for the following commutation issues:
  • 12 tickets, good for one week and sold for $4.20 (35¢ per trip),
  • 12 tickets, valid for two weeks and sold for $4.80 (40¢ per trip). 

   Response to this proposal was
favorable yet limited and the report states they were not implemented.


   In the 1930 Annual Report, two more issues were proposed:
  • 26 tickets good for 30 days, sold for $6.00 (23¢) and 
  • 60 tickets good for 30 days, sold for $15.00 (25¢). 
   
   These issues were implemented. It is therefore believed (but unconfirmed) that these are the Series H-1 and H-2 issues.
.
.
Series F - Motor Trucks / Commercial Vehicles

   Series F-4 is an issue for Motor Trucks, 2 axles, up to and including 2 ton capacity, good for two years.
It has punch boxes for the twelve months and years 1934 and 1935 (much like a railroad conductors ticket). This issue was printed by International Ticket Company, Newark, NJ.

   Strangely, this issue is only good for Goethals, Outerbridge and Bayonne Bridges. As the Verrazano was not yet to be built for 30 more years, this issue may very well be considered the first Staten Island issue. Also, if I am deducing correctly, the red outline numeral 5 denotes this is from a $5 book of scrip.

   What is not yet known is whether there was additional Series F issues for Hudson Crossings (George Washington Bridge, Lincoln or Holland Tunnels) or a system-wide issue for all bridges and tunnels.

   I came to this conclusion by looking at the 
Series H-4 (1965) 40 trip / $10 - 30 day commutation and the Series H-5 1969 # of trips unknown / $10, both of which have a red outlined 10. The question remains how many scrip were in the book. Also of particular note to the F-4 series, is the different security underprinting: wavy lines with National Security Ticket logo, in vertical orientation.

   It is presumed but unconfirmed, that the F series books were available for all truck classes / commercial vehicles: two axles up to 2 ton; two axle 2-5 tons; two axle, over 5 tons; three axle and four axle; but at this time we can only confirm the F-4.

.
.
Unknown Bus Series - (possible Series F)

   Mentioned in the 1928 Annual Report is a Bus Commutation Issues for Passenger Buses. The booklet contained 600 tickets valid for a month and sold for $360.
.
Bus Operation -The Goethals Bridge
On June 29, 1928, the Public Service Coordinated Transport commenced operations between the Winfield Scott Hotel, Elizabeth, and St. George, Staten Island, using the Goethals Bridge. The fare was 40c each way. This service was discontinued on September 15, 1928, as it was claimed by the operators to have been unprofitable. Subsequently, the Elizabeth Chamber of Commerce took up the question of re-establishing a regular bus service over the bridge, between Elizabeth and Staten Island. The proposition interested the Nevin Bus Company who agreed to make the venture provided that some arrangement could be made whereby the rate of $1.00 assessed as a toll over bridge could be adjusted.

Believing that the establishment of a regular bus service would tend to build up the local communities served, and further that its existence would provide additional bridge revenues, the Port Authority agreed to sell 600-trip monthly bus tickets for $360. In establishing this rate, the Port Authority adhered to its policy of granting no franchises or other exclusive rights to anyone wishing to use the bridges. Any bus owner may buy a 600-trip ticket, but no rebates are made if the minimum of 600 trips are not made within the month. As a result of this action, regular bus service between Staten Island and New Jersey dated from December 1, 1928, and has since continued. The fare being charged for passengers is 25c one way, instead of 40c as formerly.

.
.
Employees Pass - Series P

   Series P is an Employees Personal Pass. Non-transferable, and must show proper photo identification.



.
PNYA Series F-4 - Motor Truck Commutation - 1934/1935
2 year? / Motor Truck, 2 Axles, up to and including 2 tons
- Staten Island Crossings only
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
International Ticket Company, Newark, NJ
lithography
wavy lines with National Security Ticket logo, vertical format
black
coupon number & vehicle class in red
n/a
none
none
blank
n/a
twelve months, two year punch tabs along bottom; Staten Island Crossings only
3 ¾" (width) - 2 3/32" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.

ticket

booklet cover
PNYA Series H-3 - Passenger Automobile Commutation - 1942/1943
30 day / 26 trip / $6.00 - Staten Island Crossings only

(collection of MTA Archives)
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:


size:
International Ticket Company, Newark, NJ
lithography
wavy lines with National Security Ticket logo, vertical format
black
coupon number & vehicle class in red
n/a
none
red
unknown
unknown
twelve months, two year along bottom
31 days punch tabs on right

unknown
.

.
PNYA Series H-4 - Passenger Automobile Commutation (1965)
40 trip / 30 day / $10.00 - Hudson River Crossings only

George S. Cuhaj collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority horizontal format
green
coupon number in red
crosshatch
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red
n/a
blank
30 day commutation - 40 trips, $10
unknown
.

.

PNYA Series H-4 (8/20/1960)
40 trip / 30 day / $10.00 - All Crossings 

authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
colors, face (cover):
colors, back (cover):

notes, other:


size:
Rand McNally
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority horizontal format
black
coupon number & book value in red
crosshatch
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number on notes*
blue
single twist & floret frame, blank
black on white with red 30 DAY COMMUTATION
black on white
, contract on inner back cover
30 day commutation - 40 trips, $10

*black prefix letter with red serial number on front cover, inner front cover
& flyleaf receipt

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.

PNYA Series H-4 (7/14/1965)
40 trip / 30 day / $10.00 - all crossings 

authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
colors, face (cover):
colors, back (cover):

notes, other:


size:
Rand McNally
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority horizontal format
black
coupon number & book value in red
crosshatch
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number on notes*
blue
single twist & floret frame, blank
black on white with red 30 DAY COMMUTATION
black on white
, contract on inner back cover
30 day commutation - 40 trips, $10

*black prefix letter with red serial number on front cover, inner front cover
& flyleaf receipt

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
booklet cover only booklet cover only
p
PNYA Series H-5 - Passenger Automobile Commutation - 1967
25 trip / 2 Years / $10.00

authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
colors, face (cover):
colors, back (cover):

notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority horizontal format
dark blue
coupon number & book value in red
crosshatch
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number on notes
blue
blank twist & floret single frame
dark blue on blue with red 1967 & serial number, wave frame
dark blue on blue
, contract on inner & outer back cover
25 trip / 2 year commutation / $10

dark blue prefix letter with dark blue serial number on flyleaf receipt
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA Series H-5 - Passenger Automobile Commutation - 1969 
2 year / # of trips unknown (25?) / 2 Year / $10.00

authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
colors, face (cover):
colors, back (cover):

notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority horizontal format
dark blue
coupon number & book value in red
crosshatch
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number on notes
blue
blank twist & floret single frame
unknown (presumed to be similar to previous year)
unknown
 (presumed to be similar to previous year)
25 trip / 2 year commutation / $10
dark blue prefix letter with dark blue serial number on flyleaf receipt
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
PNYA Series H-5 - Passenger Automobile Commutation - 1970 
25 trips / 2 Year / $10.00
lithograph
Pinterest
.

.
PNYA Series H-5 - Passenger Automobile Commutation - 1971 
25 trips / 2 Year / $10.00
lithograph
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:
colors, face (cover):
colors, back (cover):

notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally & Company, New York & Chicago
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority horizontal format
dark blue
coupon number & book value in red
crosshatch
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
red prefix & serial number on notes
blue
blank twist & floret single frame
dark blue on blue with red 1971 & serial number, wave frame
dark blue on blue
, contract on inner & outer back cover
25 trip / 2 year commutation / $10

dark blue prefix letter with dark blue serial number on flyleaf receipt
3 ¾" (width) - 2 1/8" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA Employee's Personal Pass (1964) 
lithograph
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:

notes, other:

size:
Rand McNally
lithography
alternating 5 lines with Port of New York Authority horizontal format
black
coupon number & class? in red
none
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
black "BOOK No. P", red serial number
n/a
n/a

Employees Personal Pass

PA-378 / 10-64
3 ¾" (width) - 2 5/32" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
.

.
.TABLE OF CONTENTS


PNYA Scrip & Commutations Books - the "new design" 
.
   In 1969, PNYA toll scrip was redesigned and released, presumably to reflect a more modern image and to incorporate new security and accounting features.

   This new design veered away from the "stock certificate" look with ornate border of the original design; and now carried an overexposed (for lack of a better term) styled silhouette image of the head of the Statue of Liberty on the left side. The main body of the note is printed in lime green with light blue security underprinting "PORT ON NEW YORK AUTHORITY". Large 
11/16
" numerals in blue are also carried on the face for easier denominational identification. The font is now an easier to read sans-serif Helvetica style.    

   In keeping with its predecessors, these issues retained the TS code to denote denominations: TS4 ($1.00) and a new TS7 for $3.00.
It is unknown at this time, if a TS6 issue in either 2.00 or 2.25 denominations, and if the printing of TS5 ($1.50) was included in the new design, and if higher denominations than $3.00 were printed. It is presumed so.

   Also, noted on the new design is a 3/4" wide unprinted white area one side of the scrip, which is now reserved for the serial number and the Series number: 04 = TS4, 07 = TS7, etc; and the serial number.
.

.
Optical Character Recognition

   On this new design of scrip, both the series and serial number are now printed in Optical Character Recognition - A font (shortened to OCR-A) and in black ink.


   "Many of the typefaces used today are derived from medieval calligraphy, only slightly modified by the limitations of early printing technologies (wood blocks and movable type). To imitate fine penmanship, vertical strokes are thick compared to horizontal strokes, and NW-SE diagonals are thicker than NE-SW diagonals. 

   Therefore curved strokes may vary in width according to their local orientation. In contrast, typefaces specifically designed for accurate OCR, such as OCR-A and OCR-B fonts, have uniform stroke widths and exaggerated distinctions between similar symbols such as Ο and 0 or 1 and l:

1234567890
OCR-A font

.

   The next step in the evolution of the OCR font was to make it more visually pleasing. With this accomplishment, the font assumed an even easier to read character similar to Helvetica or Arial Condensed.


OCR-B font

   "OCR-A wasn’t the first font to tackle these machine-scanning issues, but it was a major step forward in that it was a complete alphabet that was readable by both machines and humans. Previously, the most well-known use for such technology involved something you’re probably familiar with if you’ve cashed a check sometime in the last 60 years: Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, or MICR:"


MICR E13-B font - used in North America

   OCR-A, which you might have seen on a piece of junk mail or two over the years, expanded on the basic idea of MICR by creating a character set that could be detected by either a computer or a set of eyes. The problem was, however, that it was a better fit for computers and had a strongly stylized design, which some found not so appealing."

Selected excerpts above credit to: "Typography - History of Optical Character Recognition"; Tedium by Ernie Smith, March 22, 2017:


   
.
   
While Optical Character Recognition programming is common today on modern computers and image scanner programs, its history can be traced back to being first developed in 1912 by Emanuel Goldberg, as an aid for reading for the visually impaired.

   By 1966, OCR programs evolved to the degree to be adopted for widespread use by the US Post Office for letter sorting.
The actual font (OCR-A) was developed from MICR font by none other than Adrian Frutiger, who is a world renowned designer of typeface designer).

   As for the OCR-A font itself, (which can be read by that article above), the font was a further developmental step from, and similar to the MICR E13B font that routing and account numbers are printed in, which can be seen on the bottom of your checks from your local bank.

   As for the technical aspects of MICR, each character is magnetically readable due to the composition of the ink and the unique shape or "magnetic fingerprint" each numeral has and not by the optical appearance, although by incorporating the magnetic signal into an optically recognizable Arabic numeral; aids in readability.


   The trial of MICR E13B font was shown to the American Bankers Association (ABA) in July 1956, which adopted it in 1958 as the MICR standard for negotiable documents in the United States. The ABA adopted MICR as its standard because machines could read MICR accurately, and MICR could be printed using existing technology. In addition, MICR remained machine readable, even when overstamped, marked, and minor mutilation. The first checks using MICR were printed by the end of 1959. Although compliance with MICR standards was voluntary in the United States, it had been almost universally adopted in the United States by 1963.

   And as we now see; this new PNYA issue of scrip was not released until 1969. It should be noted:

  • MICR readers don’t "see" the characters optically; only the amount of magnetic signal present in a vertical line at any given point; and
  • the odd print styles of MICR fonts are designed to give each character a distinctive signal shape.
    whereas:
  • OCR-A readers are strictly optical.
   .
   
With the evolution of computer programming and optics, the "mechanical" appearance of the OCR-A font has evolved to being usable with most sans-serif fonts.

   Another interesting feature accompanying the OCR-A font and seen on this new design, is the 1/2" 90 degree right angle device. I
ts actual purpose currently unconfirmed, but I believe it to be for the optical reader and associated with the serial number printing area; as it is only seen on this design issue of scrip utilizing the OCR-A characters. This "angle device" appears regardless of whether the serial number is printed on the left or right hand side of the notes; nor is this "angle device" seen on any previous or subsequent issues with other types of serial numbering. It is therefore possible it is a "check digit" or "check character" for the OCR readers.

   Returning to new design of the scrip, a change is seen on the TS7-1970 (3.00 denomination), with the unprinted area is on the right, yet with same OCR-A font for series and serial number.

   On the back of the note,
in bronze ink; a simple large 11/16" block style 1.00 graces the note; as well as the Port of New York Authority seal repeating as a security underprinting.

   A variety encountered, is TS4 - 1969 scrip perforated with the letters "US" (I only have the "US" perforated variety, I need an unperforated regular issue). It is believed, but as yet unconfirmed that these were issues to US governmental agencies and / or the military. This US perforation is seen in a earlier issue of scrip at well: Series TS4 - 1935:


PNYA "new design" - Toll Scrip - 1969-1972
PNYA Series TS4 - 1969 - $1.00 
perforated "U S " (presumably government issue)
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:

design colors, back:
design notes, back:

notes, other:
size:
unknown
lithography
repeating text & seal "PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY"
lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
unprinted area for serial number on left
n/a
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
OCR registration angle, black series number and serial number in OCR-A font in unprinted margin on left,
bronze
large sans-serif denomination numerals in bronze

perforated U S

3 ¾" (width) - 2 5/32" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA Series TS7 - 1970 - $3.00
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:


design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:

design colors, back:
design notes, back:

notes, other:
size:
unknown
lithography
repeating text "PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY" on face
repeating text & seal "PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY" on back
lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
unprinted aera for serial number on right
n/a
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
OCR registration angle, black series number and serial number in OCR-A font in unprinted margin on right
bronze
large sans-serif denomination numerals in bronze


3 ¾" (width) - 2 5/32" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PNYA Series TS7 - 1970 - $3.00
overstamp "FOR USE / TRANSCON LINES / ONLY"
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:


design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field:

facsimile signature:
serial number:

design colors, back:
design notes, back:

notes, other:
size:
unknown
lithography
repeating text "PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY" on face
repeating text & seal "PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY" on back
lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
unprinted aera for serial number on right
n/a
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
OCR registration angle, black series number and serial number in OCR-A font in unprinted margin on right
bronze
large sans-serif denomination numerals in bronze

blue overstamp for
FOR USE TRANSCON LINES ONLY"
3 ¾" (width) - 2 5/32" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
Transcon was originally founded 1946 in California as a local shipper. With the opening of the Eisenhower Interstate System across the United States, Transcon grew rapidly into the long distance / over the road trucking field through acquisitions starting in 1950. /The company enjoyed immense success 1980 following ICC deregulation. By 1990 Transcon was losing about $5 million a month, and sold to Growth Financial Corporation in April 1990 for a token $12. A detailed history of Transcon Lines may be read here: Transcon History - US1  Industries.

Is is presumed Transcon purchased toll scrip in bulk, (possibly, but not likely at a small discount); and either they or the Port New York Authority overstamped their script for their use only when redeeming at the Port Authority crossings to prevent unauthorized use.
.
.

.
PNYA "new design" - Commutation Books - 1969-1972


PNYA Series H-4 - February 1972
30 day / 20 ticket / $10.00
lithograph
collection of George S. Cuhaj
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back
serial number:
.
notes:
.
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:
.
security underprinting:
size:
Austin J. Tobin
Rand McNally
green with white head of Statue of Liberty

light blue underprinting
coupon: black OCR-A font
cover: prefix 1, large sans-serif serial number in unprinted margin on left
30 day / 20 trips / $10
coupon number in red, serial number with prefix in red
repeating "PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY" (very faint)
repeating PNYA seal, repeating: Good at / George Washington Bridge / Goethals Bridge / Outerbridge Crossing / Bayonne Bridge / Holland Tunnel / Lincoln Tunnel
PNYA seal on back of ticket

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.

PNYA "new design" - Employee's Personal Pass
PNYA Employees Personal Pass - ca. 1969 to 1972
Note this design carries the same design (silhouette view of Liberty Island and NY harbor)
as the 
PANYNJ First Issue Series H-5 Commutation Book Cover - 1977
OCR-A font serial number
PA 378-69

authors collection 
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back:
serial number:
notes:
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
Austin J. Tobin, Executive Director
unknown

red 
silhouette view of Liberty Island and NY harbor, numerals red
bronze 

serial number in black OCR-A font, in unprinted margin on right,

sans-serif denomination numbers on face and back.

repeating "PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY"
repeating emblem / seal of Port of New York Authority
and
"PORT OF NEW YORK AUTHORITY"
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)


TABLE OF CONTENTS
.

.

Serial Number Prefixes & Designs Observed for PNYA Scrip & Commutation Books
.
   The following is a chart of observed or lack of prefix letters, with serif, sans-serif or lack of "GOOD UNTIL USED"; and security field designs;
for the TS1 - 5, 1935-1969 as well as other Series of Port of New York Authority Toll Scrip.

If you have an issue with a letter prefix not listed, you are invited to contact me to add it here
: bedt14@aol.com or  (936) 396-6103.
.
Scrip
denom series year notes n/p A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y    Z printer

.25

TS1 1935 intaglio, guilloché back, no s/n prefix
does not have Lincoln Tunnel
no GOOD UNTIL USED
diamond, circle & square security field
light card stock
n/p - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -    - unknown
.
 
.25

TS1 1935 litho, plain back w/ Banknote Roman numerals: .25
has Lincoln Tunnel,
security field ?
presumed to exist, not yet observed
. .. ...... ...... ... ...
 
.25

TS1 1935 litho, plain back w/ Agency numerals: .25
has Lincoln Tunnel,
crescent, wedge & line security field
presumed to exist, not yet observed
.
 
.25

TS1 1960 litho, frame back w/ Agency numerals: .25
has Lincoln Tunnel,
Gloucester GOOD UNTIL USED
crescent, wedge & line security field
  A                                                 Rand McNally
.

.50

TS2 1935 litho, guilloché back
no GOOD UNTIL USED
F936462 w/ WAR DEPT VEHICLES overtype
F
Rand McNally
.

.50

TS2 1935 litho, guilloché back
no GOOD UNTIL USED
crescent, wedge & line security field
B
Rand McNally
.
.50 TS2 1935 litho, frame back w/ Banknote Roman numerals: .50
Optima GOOD UNTIL USED
cross security field
    G H       Rand McNally
.
.50 TS2 1935 litho, frame back w/ Agency numerals: .50
Gloucester GOOD UNTIL USED
crescent, wedge & line security field
F478379 has Associated Transport o/p
   
C D   F
    J
K
M N         S T U   W       Rand McNally
.
.50 TS2 1935 litho, blank frame back 
Gloucester GOOD UNTIL USED
L206345 w/ typed "FOR USE OF NAVY VEHICLE ONLY"
    L       Rand McNally
.50 TS2 1935 litho, blank frame back 
Gloucester GOOD UNTIL USED
M208179
   
M       Rand McNally
.
.75

TS3

1935 litho, guilloché back
security field ?
presumed to exist, not yet observed                          
.
.75

TS3

1935 litho, frame back w/ Banknote Roman numerals: .75
Optima GOOD UNTIL USED
cross security field
  A                                                 Rand McNally
.
.75

TS3

1935 litho, frame back w/ Agency numerals: .75
Gloucester GOOD UNTIL USED
crescent, wedge & line security field
                                                Y   Rand McNally
. .

1.00

TS4 1935 litho, guilloché back: 1 DOLLAR
no GOOD UNTIL USED
crescent, wedge & line security field

L Rand McNally
. .
litho, single frame back w/ Banknote Roman numerals: 1.00
1.00 TS4 1935 large 10 pt Gloucester GOOD UNTIL USED, dot & long hyphen J unknown
crude crescent, wedge & line security field
.

1.00

TS4 1935 litho, double frame back w/ Banknote Roman numerals: 1.00
Optima GOOD UNTIL USED
security field ?
A Rand McNally
. .

1.00

TS4 1935 litho, frame back w/ Agency numerals:  I.00
Gloucester GOOD UNTIL USED
*R898182 perfed "US"
A           G       K       O P   R*       V         Rand McNally
.

1.00

TS4 1969 Statue of Liberty design,
MICR E13-B font for series s/n on left side
n/p                                                     unknown
.

1.50

TS5 1951 litho, guilloché back: 1 50/100 DOLLARS
no GOOD UNTIL USED
crescent, wedge & line security field
n/p Rand McNally
.

1.50

TS5 1951 litho, frame back w/ Banknote Roman numerals: 1.50
Optima GOOD UNTIL USED
security field ? 
X Rand McNally
.

1.50

TS5 1951 litho, frame back w/ square numerals: I.00
Gloucester GOOD UNTIL USED
crescent, wedge & line security field
                                          U   W       Rand McNally
.
1.75?
2.00?
2.25? 2.50?
TS6 1969?
1970?
presumed to exist, not yet observed
.
3.00 TS7 1970 Statue of Liberty design,
"check" style font for series and s/n on right side
overprinting seen for Transcon trucking line
n/p unknown
..
Commutation Tickets & Books
Port of New York Authority Issues
PNYA F-4 1934/
1935
Motor Truck (2 axles) up to 2 tons -
Goethals, Outerbridge or Bayonne Bridges

2 Year?
no serial number - coupon #23
Int'l Ticket Co
.
PNYA H3 1942/
1943
Passenger Auto
Goethals, Outerbridge or Bayonne Bridges only
good until December 31, 1943
s/n 122500
.
PNYA H4
green
1965 Passenger Auto - 40 trip / 30 day / $10.00
Hudson River Crossings only

s/n 92006
n/p
. .
PNYA H4
black
1960
1965
Passenger Auto - 40 trip / 30 day / $10.00
all crossings

good until August 20, 1960 - s/n C 233127
good until July 14, 1965 - s/n E 648863 
C
1960
E
1965
I
unk
.
PNYA H5 1967 Passenger Auto
good until December 31, 1969
s/n C 927378 - (cover only)
C
Rand McNally
.
PNYA H5 1969 Passenger Auto - 25 trip / 2 Year / $10.00
good until December 31, 1969 
s/n D 569020 - coupon #7
D
Rand McNally
PNYA H5 1970 Passenger Auto - 25 trip / 2 Year / $10.00
good until December 31, 1970 
s/n E 151596

E
Rand McNally
.
PNYA H5 1971 Passenger Auto - 25 trip / 2 Year / $10.00
good until December 31, 1969
s/n E 749604 (cover only)

E Rand McNally
.
PNYA P 1964? Employees Personal Pass
P 89098 - coupon #24
form PA-378 10/64
P Rand McNally
.
PNYA
new dsgn
H4 1972 Passenger Auto - 20 ticket / 30 day / $10.00
good until February 17, 1972
s/n 1 828604 (gsc)
1 xxxxxx
.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
.



Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Scrip



   It is here where I would appreciate all assistance and input. Scrip examples and information are severely lacking. In some cases, I only have a booklet cover and the stubs inside, but no images of the actual scrip. So, it goes without further elaboration: images and information are greatly appreciated. Your extras for sale are even more so! 

   Please do not hesitate to contact me either by email at bedt14@aol.com or by telephone at (936) 396-6103.


Please note:
   In consideration of the removal of a series number or issue years from this and subsequent designs, the following scrip issue designs are divided into tentative First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth issues for either Scrip or Commutation Books at this time. This series system is based on changes in general appearance, use of PANYNJ logos and dates of use as either written on the inside front cover, or in the printing codes on the stubs. If information is received from official PANYNJ sources or collectors, that an official series name or number exists, the nomenclature on this website may change.


.
PANYNJ Scrip - First? Issue - ca. 1972 - Series of 1969
.   
   In 1972, the Port of New York Authority was renamed to better reflect its status and partnership concerning the two states, that being of New York AND New Jersey. As a result, new printings of all scrip and commutation books were changed to carry the agency's new identity: The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.


   As such, the lettering and underprinting of the scrip was changed to reflect the new agency name. While the front design appears unchanged, the color of the back of the scrip was changed to green; and now, the underprinting was a smaller repeating version of the Statue of Liberty (replacing the PNYA seal) as well as the small words "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey" of face and back.


PANYNJ First? Issue - Series TS4 - 1969 - $1.00
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field, face:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:

security underprinting, signature field, face:
notes, other:
size:
unknown
lithographic
none
lime green, black text, blue numerals, white (unprinted) Statue of Liberty head
all text sans-serif
medium green security underprint "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey"

none
black OCR-A font, in unprinted margin on right, registration angle at top right

green
s
ans-serif denomination numbers on back, wide unprinted area left, thin strip on right
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" and Statue of Liberty face

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.
.
   Until now, all notes seen had fit neatly into either the final 1969 and 1970 Series of PNYA scrip above or the issues of PANYNJ below.

   But the appearance of the $1.00 scrip directly above now presents a quandary. It clearly says Port of New York and New Jersey, and front and back designs match those in those series illustrated below. However, it still retains the designation Series TS4 - 1969 in the upper left, and it has an OCR-A series number (04), serial number and 90 degree registration angle as with the final Port of New York Authority series from the previous designs, as seen on notes in the chapter prior to this.
   
   However the unprinted area for the serial number is on the right
which conforms to following PANYNJ issues (instead of left as with those previous PNYA issues).

   It is unknown if there are other denominations conforming to the above design, or if only the $1.00 note appeared like this, with the $1.50 and higher denominations falling into below designs , which would in actuality make them part of the First Issue. Until more information surfaces or other notes appear, I will keep the designs separated by issue.

   Therefore, the appearance of this above note now has to be designated PANYNJ First Issue, and those issue numbers of notes listed below have been advanced by one (First becoming Second, Second becoming Third, etc).

   All subsequent PANYNJ issues 
appear to forgo the use of the Series TS designation. Denominations in my collection are $2.25, $3.00 and $6.00. Serial numbers remain in the unprinted area on right, but are now in a larger easier to read sans-serif number font.    

   The serial number is no longer in OCR-A font, and appears to a standard sans-serif numbering font (but still can be optically recognized) applied via automatic letterpress numbering crash numbering machines.

   There is one variety worth noting: on the $6.00 issue, there is seen a serial number without prefix, and one with a double zero (00) prefix. The purpose or meaning of this 00 prefix is unknown at this time.

   Also, on notes higher than 9,999,999, the numeral 1 for the 10 million designation appears to have been printed in a separate process from the rest of the serial number; perhaps even at the time of the application of the black ink process for the main design. Also seen is a double zero, 00 prefix.

   This size of the scrip remains as with all previous issues:
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PANYNJ First? Issue - Series H-4 - October 1973
30 day / 20 ticket / $10.00
large font serial number with 003 serial number prefix
authors collection
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors:

serial number:
notes:
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:
size:
none
Ran McNally
face: purple, white head of Statue of Liberty
back: purple

black OCR-A font; 003 prefix, black ink

unknown
unknown
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PANYNJ First? Issue - Series H-4 - June 1975
30 day / 20 ticket / $10.00
small condensed sans-serif font serial number - no prefix
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field, face:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:

security underprinting, signature field, face:
notes, other:
size:
unknown
lithographic
none
purple, black text, white (unprinted) Statue of Liberty head
all text sans-serif
purple security underprint "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey"

none
black OCR-B font, in unprinted margin on right, registration angle at top right

purple
s
ans-serif denomination numbers on back, unprinted area left, stub unprinted
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" and Statue of Liberty face
Class 16? 020 = ticket number
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)

PANYNJ First? Issue - Series H-5 - 1976
1 year / 12 ticket / $9.60

large font serial number with 002 serial number prefix
authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field, face:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:

security underprinting, signature field, face:
notes, other:
size:
Rand McNally
lithographic
none
presumed purple, black text, white (unprinted) Statue of Liberty head
all text sans-serif
purple security underprint "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey"

none
black ink, sans-serif font with 002 prefix on cover, OCR-A font on tickets ?
purple
unknown
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" and Statue of Liberty face
white cloth binding on booklet cover
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PANYNJ First? Issue - Series H-5 - 1977
1 year / 12 ticket / $9.60

large font serial number with 002 serial number prefix

authors collection
printer:
printing method:
security printing, paper / watermark:

design colors, face:
design notes, face:
security underprinting, signature field, face:

facsimile signature:
serial number:
design colors, back:
design notes, back:

security underprinting, signature field, face:
notes, other:
size:
Osceola Graphics
lithographic
none
presumed purple, black text, white (unprinted) Statue of Liberty head
all text sans-serif
purple security underprint "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey"

none
black ink, sans-serif font with 002 prefix on cover, OCR-A font on tickets ?
purple
unknown
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" and Statue of Liberty face
white cloth binding on booklet cover
3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.



PANYNJ Scrip - Second? Issue - ca. 1976?
.
   With this design, the "TS Series" and year and the OCR-A serial number font no longer used.

   It is also now seen that the books of scrip tickets are bound with red padding compound, instead of wire (staple) stitching. Commutation books remain wire (staple) stitched, covered with adhesive cloth tape and tickets perforated for tear off.

 


PANYNJ Second? Issue - $1.50
red padding compound
authors collection
.

.
PANYNJ Second? Issue - $1.50
authors collection
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back
serial number:
notes:
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
none
unknown
lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
medium green security underprint with large numerals

black sans-serif in unprinted margin on right
sans-serif denomination numbers on face and back.
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"
repeating emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
PANYNJ Second? Issue - $2.00
authors collection
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors face:
colors, back:
serial number:
notes:
.

security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
none
unknown
lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
medium green security underprint with large numerals

black sans-serif in unprinted margin on right
sans-serif denomination numbers on face and back.

1 prefix (greater than 10,000,000) out of register
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"  repeating emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PANYNJ Second? Issue - $2.00
with overstamp for Domenico Bus Service
authors collection 
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back:
serial number:
notes:
.

security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
none
unknown
lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
medium green security underprint with large numerals

black sans-serif in unprinted margin on right
sans-serif denomination numbers on face and back.
1 prefix, overstamp for Domenico Bus Service
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"  repeating emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PANYNJ Second? Issue - $2.25
authors collection
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back:
notes:
.
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
none
unknown
lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
medium green security underprint with large numerals

black sans-serif in unprinted margin on right
sans-serif denomination numbers on face and back.
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"
repeating
emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PANYNJ Second? Issue - $3.00
authors collection
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back:
serial number:
notes:
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

.
size:
none
unknown
lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
medium green security underprint with large numerals

black sans-serif in unprinted margin on right
sans-serif denomination numbers on face and back.
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"
repeating
emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PANYNJ Second? Issue - $6.00
authors collection
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back:
serial number:
notes:
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
none
unknown
 lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
medium green security underprint with large numerals

black sans-serif in unprinted margin on right
sans-serif denomination numbers on face and back.
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" repeating emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.

PANYNJ Second? Issue - $6.00
with 00 serial number prefix
authors collection
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back:
serial number:

notes:
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
none
unknown
lime green, white head of Statue of Liberty, blue numerals
medium green security underprint with large numerals

00 prefix (preprinted?) - unusual font for serial number
black ink sans-serif font in unprinted margin on right
sans-serif denomination numbers on face and back.
repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" repeating emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.


PANYNJ Second Issue? - Commutation Tickets & Books

   As with the earlier commutation books, these were books of tickets with no denomination; but were only valid for a limited amount of time, whereas the denominational scrip issues were good until used.

   H-4 books were valid for 30 days, and contained 20 tickets. H-5 Books were good for a year, but only contained 12 tickets.


PANYNJ Second? Issue - Series H-4 - February 1977
30 day / 20 ticket / $20.00

roman font serial number 
authors collection
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back:
serial number:
notes:
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
none
Rand McNally
red, white head of Statue of Liberty
red

black ink, san serif on coupons, roman font on cover, in red body

repeating PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" on face repeating emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" on back

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.

PANYNJ Second? Issue - Series H-4 October 1979
30 day / 20 ticket / $20.00

sans-serif font serial number 
collection of George S. Cuhaj
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back:
serial number:
.
notes:
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
none
Rand McNally, Southern Coupon, Osceola Graphics; others?
red, white head of Statue of Liberty
red

black ink, sans-serif on cover in white area, sans-serif font, ticket number over serial number

repeating 
PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" on face repeating emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY" on back

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)
.

.
PANYNJ Second? Issue - Series H-4 - March 29 / April 29, 1980
30 day / 20 ticket / $20.00

roman font serial number on book cover, sans-serif serial number on tickets
This issue raises at least one question. With the serial number cover on the book different from the tickets,
were there two separately contracted printing firms?

authors collection
facsimile signature:
printer:
colors, face:
colors, back:
serial number:

notes:
security underprinting, face:
security underprinting, back:

size:
none
Rand McNally
blue, white head of Statue of Liberty
blue

black ink, roman font on cover, sans-serif font on tickets, ticket number over serial number

repeating 
PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"
repeating emblem of Statue of Liberty and
"PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY"

3 ¾" (width) - 2 ⅛" (height) - 0.005" (thickness)


PANYNJ Second? Issue - Carpool Commutation Books

   As learned from a Federal Highway Administration report on "Valuation of Priority Treatment for High Occupancy Vehicles, Final Report - January 1981", the Carpool Ticket book was introduced in 1975; the following is now known;.

TOLL PRICING
New York City, NY

Project Description:

Reduced tolls for 3+ carpools during peak periods were instituted on six river crossings from New Jersey to New York. The carpool tolls were introduced in April 1975 at the same time tolls were increased for other modes. The carpool rate is half the rate of a standard commuter ticket. 

Project Location:

The six (6) river crossings are the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge, Bayonne Bridge, George Washington Bridge, and the Lincoln and Holland Tunnels.

Project Characteristics:

On April 10, 1975, the toll schedule for the NY-NJ river crossings was increased by 50 percent for all classes of vehicles except buses. At the same time, an existing 50 percent commuter discount ticket and a 20 percent two-year discount ticket were abolished. A special weekday transferable carpool ticket was made available for 3+ carpools. This carpool ticket, good for six months, represented a 66 2/3 percent discount over the new cash fare and equivalent to the price of a commuter ticket before the